Ischemic bowel disease results from inadequate flow of oxygenated blood to the intestines. The extent of ischemic bowel disease can range from mild to severe based on the amount of damage from lack of oxygenated blood. This is a potentially serious condition and immediate medical care. The sooner ischemic bowel disease is treated, the more favorable the outcome.
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Ischemic bowel disease occurs when an artery that supplies blood becomes blocked or narrowed. There are several possible causes of ischemic bowel disease, including: Blockage in the arteries due to a tumor or blood clot
Narrowing of the arteries supplying blood to the bowel
atherosclerosisObstruction in the colon
Ischemic bowel disease may cause: Cramping and abdominal painBloody stoolsFrequent urge to defecateDiarrheaNausea
or vomitingAbdominal distension
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may suspect ischemic bowel disease based on your symptoms and risk factors. Tests may be done to confirm or rule out a diagnosis.
Tests may include the following: Abdominal x-rayAbdominal CT scan
MRI scanColonoscopy—a procedure where a long flexible tube is inserted through the rectum to inspect the colon and rectum
Angiography—an x-ray test used to view the arteries supplying the bowel
Treatment options depend on the severity of the ischemia and include the following:
Bowel rest and intravenous fluids are given in mild cases without significant progressed damage to the bowel.
Antibiotics are administered to minimize infection, which can quickly complicate an ischemic bowel.
In more severe cases, surgery is required to remove the ischemic colon.
To help reduce your chances of developing ischemic bowel disease: Stay well hydrated.Reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease through regular exercise and a balanced diet low in fat and calories.Consume plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and fiber, which may reduce your risk of colon cancer.
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Greenwald DA, Brandt LJ, et al. Ischemic bowel disease in the elderly.
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Last reviewed September 2016 by Daus Mahnke, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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