The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized glands. They are located next to the thyroid gland in the neck. The glands secrete the parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH helps to regulate the level of calcium in the blood.
In hypoparathyroidism, there is not enough PTH secreted. This causes low levels of calcium in the blood. Low blood calcium is known as hypocalcemia.
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands: Posterior (Back) View
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Hypoparathyroidism may be caused by: Removal of the parathyroid glandsUnderlying autoimmune disordersAbsence of the parathyroid glands at birthDamage to the parathyroid glands
Genetics conditions, such as
Magnesium deficiency due to
alcohol use disorder and/or malnutrition
Other causes, such as metal overload from iron, magnesium, or aluminium
In some cases, a cause cannot be found.
Factors that may increase your chance of hypoparathyroidism include: Multiple autoimmune disordersThyroid or parathyroid surgeryFamily history of hypoparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism does not always cause symptoms. If symptoms do develop, they may include: WeaknessMuscle cramps
or twitchingPainDifficulty with walkingTingling around the mouth, fingers, and toesExcessive nervousnessLoss of memoryMood swingsAnxiety
Blurred vision due to
cataractsThin, brittle nailsDry and scaly skinSeizures
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with: Blood testsUrine test
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with: X-rayCT scan
Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
Calcium and vitamin D will usually be taken indefinitely. They are often taken by mouth.
Calcium may be given by injection. This is done when immediate symptom relief is needed.
There are no current guidelines to prevent hypoparathyroidism.
Definition of hypoparathyroidism and related disorders. The Hypoparathyroidism Association website. Available at:
https://www.hypopara.org/about-hpth/definition.html. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypoparathyroidism. National Organization for Rare Disorders website. Available at:
http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/703/viewFullReport. Updated April 2, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
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Moffett JM, Suliburk J. Parathyroid autotransplantation.
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Testini M, Gurrado A, Lissidini G, Nacchiero M. Hypoparathyroidism after total
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Winer KK, Ko CW, Reynolds JC, et al. Long-term treatment of hypoparathyroidism: a randomized controlled study comparing parathyroid hormone (1-34) versus calcitriol and calcium.
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Last reviewed September 2015 by James Cornell, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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