MONDAY, Aug. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Devices called insulin pumps
may work better at controlling blood sugar in children with type 1
diabetes than insulin injections, a new study finds.
They might also cause fewer complications, the Australian
"This is the largest study of insulin-pump use in children,"
wrote a team led by Dr. Elizabeth Davis of the Princess Margaret
Hospital for Children in Perth. "It also has the longest follow-up
period of any study of insulin-pump therapy in children. Our data
confirm that insulin-pump therapy provides an improvement in
glycemic control, which is sustained for at least seven years."
The study was published Aug. 18 in the journal
Davis's team compared outcomes for 345 children, aged 2 to 19,
who were using insulin pumps to control their type 1 diabetes to a
similar number of children who were receiving insulin
The children were followed for a median of three and a half
During the follow-up period, episodes of dangerously low blood
sugar levels (severe hypoglycemia) in the insulin-pump group fell
by about half, the researchers said. In contrast, episodes of
severe hypoglycemia in the insulin-injection group rose, from about
seven events per 100 patients per year to more than 10 events by
the end of the study.
The researchers also looked at rates of hospital admission for
diabetic ketoacidosis, a shortage of insulin that causes the body
to switch to burning fats and to produce acidic ketone molecules
that cause complications and symptoms. This a frequent complication
in children with type 1 diabetes.
Admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis were lower in the
insulin-pump group than in the insulin-injection group -- 2.3 and
4.7 per 100 patients per year, respectively, according to the
Of the 345 patients with insulin pumps, 38 stopped using them at
some point during the study: six in the first year, seven in the
second year, 10 in the third year and the remainder after three
The study authors said some children stop because they tire of
the extra attention needed to manage the pump, or are concerned
about the physical sight of the pump. Other children sometimes take
a temporary "pump holiday" and then start using a pump again.
Two U.S. diabetes experts weren't surprised by the findings.
"The current standard of insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes is
multiple daily insulin-injection therapy," said Dr. Patricia
Vuguin, a pediatric endocrinologist at Cohen Children's Medical
Center of New York in New Hyde Park, N.Y.
"[However], in the 1970s, continuous subcutaneous insulin
infusion -- also know as pump therapy -- was introduced," she said.
"Pump therapy has been gaining popularity, perhaps because of
technical advances resulting in improved patient comfort and
Vuguin said the study succeeded in "confirming that insulin-pump
therapy improved and sustained glucose control in type 1 diabetic
subjects for at least seven years."
Virginia Peragallo-Dittko is executive director of the Diabetes
and Obesity Institute at Winthrop-University Hospital in Mineola,
N.Y. She said that "when treating insulin-deficient type 1
diabetes, there is more than one way to provide insulin that mimics
what the pancreas usually provides."
"Compared to multiple injections, the insulin pump allows for
more flexible insulin dosing when insulin needs decrease during
exercise or increase during illness, and it also allows for more
flexible meal-time dosing," Peragallo-Dittko said.
What has been missing, however, is a study that tracked
children's outcomes with insulin pump use over the long haul, she
"The demands of diabetes self-management continue 24/7, and it
is especially hard for children, teenagers and their families to
manage these demands during growth spurts and puberty,"
Peragallo-Dittko said. "So what is important about this study is
that the improvement in [blood sugar control] lasted over time in a
real-life setting and that those who use insulin pumps may have an
The Nemours Foundation has more about
type 1 diabetes.