THURSDAY, June 27 (HealthDay News) -- In a hidden health effect
of terrorism, about 1 million former smokers in the United States
started smoking again after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks,
a new study finds.
The research found that smoking increased 2.3 percent nationwide
after the 9/11 attacks. The increase was maintained until the end
of 2003, when the researchers' analysis of data ended.
The study also found especially high increases in stress levels
after Sept. 11 in communities with higher percentages of
active-duty and reserve members of the military, and among
higher-educated people. The rise in stress levels accounted for all
of the increase in smoking, said the researchers from the Weill
Cornell Medical College in New York City.
"This study provides the first unbiased estimate of the effect
of stress on smoking, and the finding that there was such a big
increase in smoking nationwide, seemingly due to one event, is
extraordinary and surprising," study author Michael Pesko, an
instructor in the department of public health, said in a college
news release. "It sheds light on a hidden cost of terrorism."
The findings were published online recently in the journal
Contemporary Economic Policy.
"I was really surprised to find that former smokers across the
nation resumed their old habit," Pesko said. "I was expecting to
see impacts just in the New York City area or, at most, the
Pesko said the estimated cost to the government of increased
smoking after Sept. 11 was between $530 million and $830 million,
and may be higher if the smoking continued beyond 2003. The costs
include Medicare and Medicaid expenses, productivity losses
associated with smoking-related illnesses and decreased tax revenue
from lost work.
The findings suggest a potential public health response to deal
with stress caused by future terrorist attacks or disasters, Pesko
said. One idea would be to offer free nicotine-replacement therapy
soon after the event.
"Another strategy would be to alert health professionals to do
more substance-abuse screening during regular medical appointments
following terrorist attacks, or any such event that is likely to
stress the nation," he said.
Pesko also looked at the aftermath of the 1995 Oklahoma City
bombing but did not find an increase in smoking after that
The U.S. National Institute of Mental Health has more about