Glucose is a type of sugar. It is the body’s main source of energy.
Hypoglycemia is when the level of glucose in the blood becomes too low. When blood glucose drops too low, the body does not have enough energy to function properly. Hypoglycemia in infants occurs in babies less than 1 year old.
The body can normally balance the amount of glucose in the blood. The body will release insulin to reduce high levels of glucose in the blood. When blood glucose levels drop too low, the body can release stored glucose. Hypoglycemia occurs when these factors are disrupted.
Situations that can lead to hypoglycemia include: Low fat and glucose stores—common in small for age or premature babiesConditions that increase the use of glucose such as fevers, seizure, or stressHigh levels of insulin
Newborns can also have hypoglycemia during the first 2 hours after birth. This is often a temporary situation. Your child’s body will adjust soon after birth.
Factors that increase an infant’s risk of hypoglycemia due to low glucose stores include: Premature birthLow birth weightSituations that use high amounts of glucose such as perinatal stress, cold stress, infection, fever, respiratory distress, and seizuresBirth defects
Factors that increase an infant’s risk of hypoglycemia due to high insulin include: Diabetes in the mother during pregnancyHigher than normal birth weightMedications used to treat high levels of glucoseSyndromes that cause excess insulin such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Sotos syndrome, Kabuki syndrome
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Other factors include: Genetic mutationsHormone deficiencies
Factors in the mother that increase a child’s risk of having hypoglycemia include: DiabetesHigh blood pressureHaving delivered a prior child with increased birth weightMedications such as beta blockersIllegal drug use
Symptoms of hypoglycemia may include: IrritabilityTremblingA high-pitched crySeizuresBluish skinRefusal to feedEasily startledBreathing problems
You will be asked about your baby’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your baby's glucose levels will be checked. This can be done with blood testing.
The doctor will also want to determine the cause of your baby’s hypoglycemia. Tests will be done based on the suspected cause. They may include blood tests, scans to create images of organs, or genetic testing.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for your baby. Treatment will focus on increasing the glucose in your baby’s blood. Underlying issues may also need to be treated. Options include:
Frequent feedings may help raise blood glucose levels in infants. Infants may also be given a glucose mixture with feedings or by IV. This may be done until the infant’s blood glucose level is stable.
Medication is usually not needed for hypoglycemia alone. It may be given to treat underlying conditions. Some medications can lower the release of insulin or encourage the liver to release more glucose.
To prevent hypoglycemia in infants: Breastfeed or formula feed early and often.If you have diabetes during pregnancy, keep it in good control.
Causes of high blood glucose and low blood glucose. Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at:
http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/chronic/Pages/Causes-of-High-Blood-Glucose-and-Low-Blood-Glucose.aspx. Updated August 20, 2015. Accessed September 16, 2015.
Hypoglycemia and low blood sugar. Boston Children’s Hospital website. Available at:
http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1128/mainpageS1128P1.html. Accessed September 16, 2015.
Hypoglycemia. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at:
http://kidshealth.org/parent/diabetes_center/diabetes_basics/hypoglycemia.html#a_Treating_Low_Blood_Sugar_Levels. Updated September 2013. Accessed September 16, 2015.
Hypoglycemia in the newborn. Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital website. Available at:
http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/diabetes/hyponew.html. Accessed September 16, 2015.
Neonatal hypoglycemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 10, 2015. Accessed September 16, 2015.
Last reviewed September 2015 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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