Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a dangerous rise in blood pressure in people with spinal cord injuries.
AD can be serious. If it is not treated right away, it can lead to seizures,
, and death. Treatment is aimed at finding and eliminating the problem that started the reaction.
Pain can cause an increase in blood pressure. In people with spinal lesions, pain may not be felt but can stimulate a physical reaction. In particular, local blood vessels shrink in response to the pain which increases blood pressure. Normally the brain will receive messages about the increase in blood pressure and take steps to lower the blood pressure back to normal. With AD, the message cannot reach the brain because of the spinal injury. As a result, the blood pressure continues to rise to dangerous levels.
AD can be caused by anything that would have been painful or physically uncomfortable before your spinal cord injury. The pain stimulation most often associated with AD is an overfull bladder. A blockage in your catheter, an infection, bladder spasms, or stones can all create pain stimulation.
Other factors that may cause pain stimulation include:
Bowel that is full of gas or stoolClothing that is too tightSkin irritationsWoundsPressure soresBurnsBroken bonesLabor in pregnant womenMenstrual crampsSexual activity that would be painful if you had full sensationIngrown toenailsAppendicitisGastric ulcer
AD occurs more often in people who have spinal cord injuries at the level of T6 and above (upper back). It is also more common in people with recent spinal cord injuries.
Parts of The Spine
AD occurs in people with injuries in the thoracic area of their spinal cord.
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Sometimes you will have no symptoms at all.
Symptoms that do occur may include:
Pounding headache (caused by the rise in blood pressure)Sweating above the level of spinal cord injuryNasal congestionBlurry visionSlow pulseBlotchy skin above the level of spinal cord injuryFeeling restlessFlushed (reddened) faceChest tightnessNauseaGoose bumps below the level of spinal cord injuryCold, clammy skin below the level of spinal cord injury
If you check your blood pressure, you will notice that it is increased.
AD is suspected when: The symptoms above are presentWhen blood pressure is elevated in someone with a spinal cord injury at the T6 level and above.
AD is treated by addressing the problem causing it.
Steps to take at home include:
Sit upright to lower your blood pressure.Elevate your head and lower your legs if possible.Take frequent blood pressure checks until the episode is over.Loosen or remove any clothes, shoes, leg braces, external catheter tape, or straps.Look for possible causes Check your bladder. An overfull bladder is one of the most common causes of AD.If you think your bowels may be a cause, do a bowel program if you can. If AD is happening during a bowel program, stop the procedure. You can start again after your symptoms go away.Look for signs of injury like a pressure sore, burn, or broken bones.
After the problem has been addressed: You should stay in an upright position. Have your blood pressure checked frequently until you are feeling normal.
If you cannot find a cause or if symptoms are continuing or getting worse, call for medical help right away. Medical care may include blood pressure lowering medication and monitoring.
If you have a spinal cord injury, carry an AD medical alert card with you. This can alert people you are with if you have symptoms of AD and what steps to take.
Preventing AD is very important. If you have an indwelling urinary catheter, take these steps to prevent problems that could lead to AD:
Check your tubing to make sure it is free of kinks.Empty the drainage bags regularly.Make sure the drainage bag is at a level lower than your bladder.Check the catheter daily for signs of wear or problems with any piece of the catheter.
Other steps you can take to prevent AD include:
Empty your bowels regularly.Avoid tight or restrictive clothing.Check your skin regularly for signs of wounds or pressure sores.Avoid things that could burn or damage your skin such as, sun exposure or extremely hot water.Follow up with your medical team regularly to monitor your condition.
Autonomic dysreflexia. The National Spinal Cord Injury Association website. Available at:
http://www.spinalcord.org/resource-center/askus/index.php?pg=kb.page&id=248. Accessed January 18, 2012.
Other complications of spinal cord injury: autonomic dysreflexia (hyperreflexia). University of Miamai/Jackson Memorial Medical Center, Louis Calder Memorial Library website. Available at:
http://calder.med.miami.edu/pointis/automatic.html. Accessed June 12, 2013.
Spinal cord injury – chronic management. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 22, 2013. Accessed June 12, 2013.
Last reviewed December 2013 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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