A parathyroidectomy is a surgery to remove parathyroid glands. There are 4 parathyroid glands located in the neck. The glands make a hormone that balance the level of
in the blood.
Parathyroid and Thyroid Glands (Back View)
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The surgery is done to remove 1 or more abnormal parathyroid glands. The glands can be overactive, or abnormal due to cancer or for other reasons.
A minimally invasive approach is usually done if only 1 gland needs to be removed. If more than 1 gland needs to be removed or if the doctor needs to do additional surgery in the neck, a conventional approach may used instead, which involves making larger incisions.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Complications may include: BleedingHoarsenessLow calcium levels in the blood (more common if all 4 glands are removed)Wound infectionReaction to the anesthesiaSkin tethering—tissues and skin may become attached to the voice box or windpipeScarringBlocked airwayDamage to nerves, which can cause problems like paralyzed vocal cords
Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications, such as: SmokingDrinking
Chronic diseases, such as
Your doctor will: Do a physical exam and ask you about your medical historyOrder imaging test such as ultrasound or parathyroid scanHave blood tests done
You should: Arrange to have someone drive you home from the hospital after surgery.Avoid eating or drinking 6-8 hours before surgery.Talk to your doctor about your medications, herbs, and dietary supplements. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to 1 week before the procedure.
is used most often. It will block any pain and you will stay asleep through the surgery.
In some cases, local anesthesia and sedation may be used instead.
The area will be numb but you will be awake.
There are different types of minimally invasive surgeries that may be used, such as:
A small incision will be made in the neck. A small tube with a tiny camera will be passed through the incision. The images from the camera will be sent to a TV monitors so the doctor can see the glands. Other small tools will be passed through the tube to detach and remove the gland. Once the gland has been removed, the incision will be closed with stitches.
A radioactive substance will be injected into your body. The abnormal gland will absorb the substance but the healthy glands will not. A small incision will be made in the neck and a small probe will be inserted. The probe will detect signals that are given off by the radioactive substance in the abnormal gland. This will help the doctor find the abnormal gland. Other small tools will be passed through the tube to detach and remove the gland. Once the gland has been removed, the incision will be closed with stitches.
With either surgery, if all 4 glands were removed, a part of one gland may be placed in a different area of the neck or in the forearm.
Between 30 minutes and 1-2 hours (depending on the type of surgery)
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
You may need to stay in the hospital for a day or you may be able to leave the same day. Ask your doctor if this is an option for you. Your doctor may also choose to keep you longer if you have any problems.
After your surgery, the hospital staff will: Observe you in the recovery roomCheck on your ability to swallow and speakTest your calcium levelsShow you how to change your dressings and care for your wound
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection, such as: Washing their handsWearing gloves or masksKeeping your incisions covered
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chance of infection, such as: Washing your hands often and reminding your healthcare providers to do the sameReminding your healthcare providers to wear gloves or masksNot allowing others to touch your incision
To help your recovery at home: You may be given calcium supplements.Follow your doctor's instructions.
Contact your doctor if your recovery is not progressing as expected or you develop complications such as: Tingling or numbness in the fingertips, toes, hands, or around the mouthTwitching or cramping of musclesRedness, warmth, drainage, or swelling around the area where surgery was doneDifficulty swallowing, talking, or breathingSigns of infection, including fever and chills
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Farndon JR. Surgical treatment: Evidence-based and problem-oriented. Postoperative complications of parathyroidectomy. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6967. Accessed May 11, 2016.
Parathyroid surgery. The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons website. Available at: http://endocrinediseases.org/parathyroid/surgery_overview.shtml. Accessed May 11, 2016.
Parathyroidectomy. Cedars-Sinai website. Available at:
http://cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Programs-and-Services/Head-and-Neck-Cancer-Center/Treatment/Parathyroidectomy.aspx. Accessed May 11, 2016.
Parathyroidectomy: minimally invasive (focused). University of California, Los Angeles Endocrine Surgery website. Available at:
http://endocrinesurgery.ucla.edu/surgery_mip.html. Accessed May 11, 2016.
6/6/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am J Med.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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