Fetal cardiac dysfunction refers to a number of heart problems in a growing fetus. For example, the heart can be: Pumping weaklyPumping irregularly
The heart is not adequately able to move blood through the fetus’ body. This can cause distress in the fetus. The condition can range from mild to severe.
Blood Flow Through the Heart
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Cardiac dysfunction may be due to: Genetic diseases that affect the heartProblems with structures of the heartInfections
Exposure to certain substances such as
, and some medications
General risk factors for heart problems include: Family history of congenital heart defectsCertain chromosomal disorders in the child
Previous pregnancy with fetal heart abnormalities or
Conditions during pregnancy, such as:
Being infected with a virus such as
rubellaHaving poorly controlled diabetesDrinking alcohol
Taking certain medications, such as isotretinoin for
acnePoor blood supply to the fetus
The symptoms depend on the type of defect. The doctor will monitor your baby’s growth and heart rate during the pregnancy. During fetal monitoring, the doctor may detect an abnormal heartbeat, such as: Irregular, extra, or missed heartbeatsHeart beats too fast—tachycardiaHeart beats too slowly—bradycardia
During imaging tests, the doctor may also detect: Abnormal heart structureBlood flow problems
Fetal cardiac dysfunction can be detected using special tests during pregnancy.
Images may be taken of your abdomen. This can be done with: Fetal ultrasound
Your fetus' fluids may be tested. This can be done with
Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your baby. During your pregnancy, you will need to be examined by specialists, such as: Perinatologist or maternal-fetal medicine specialist—a doctor who specializes in the treatment of high-risk pregnanciesPediatric cardiologist—a doctor who specializes in heart conditions in children
There are many categories of this condition. Treatment depends on the type of defect. In certain cases, the problem can resolve on its own.
In other cases, the condition may be treated during the pregnancy. For example, surgery may be done to repair abnormal structures while the baby is in the uterus.
Your baby may need medications or surgery after birth. Examples of surgeries that may be done include: Catheterization—a tube is inserted through the veins and into the heart for testing or a procedure
Pacemaker insertion—a small, battery-operated device is inserted into the heart to maintain a normal heartbeat
To help reduce your chance having a baby with heart defects: Visit your doctor regularly. Your doctor will monitor your health and the health of your baby. Certain tests may be able to detect a heart defect in a growing fetus.Have a healthy lifestyle. Eat healthy food and take prenatal vitamins.Do not drink alcohol, smoke, or use drugs. This is especially important if you are pregnant.
Congenital heart defects. American Heart Association website. Available at:
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/Congenital-Heart-Defects_UCM_001090_SubHomePage.jsp. Accessed July 19, 2013.
Congenital heart defects. Nemours Kid's Health website. Available at:
http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/congenital_heart_defects.html. Updated January 2012. Accessed July 19, 2013.
Fetal echocardiography/Your unborn baby's heart. American Heart Association website. Available at:
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/SymptomsDiagnosisofCongenitalHeartDefects/Fetal-Echocardiography-Your-Unborn-Babys-Heart_UCM_315640_Article.jsp. Accessed July 19, 2013.
Special tests for monitoring fetal health. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at:
http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq098.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130719T0549108390. Accessed July 19, 2013.
Last reviewed June 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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