Pulmonary valve stenosis is when the pulmonary valve is thickened or can't open fully.
The heart pumps blood out of the right side of the heart, through the pulmonary valve, to the lungs. When this valve is not working properly, it can decrease the amount of blood going to the lungs for oxygen or increase the work the heart muscle has to do to maintain it. Blood can also back up into the heart. The condition can be mild to severe.
Heart Chambers and Valves
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Blood Flow Through the Heart
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Pulmonary stenosis is caused by abnormal development of the heart valve before birth. In most cases, it is not known exactly why it happens.
Factors that may increase the risk of pulmonary valve stenosis may include: Family history of congenital heart defectCertain chromosomal disordersOther heart defects
Previous pregnancy with fetal heart abnormalities or
miscarriageBeing infected with a virus during pregnancyMaternal smoking during pregnancy
Symptoms may include: Heavy or rapid breathingShortness of breathBlue or pale grayish skin colorFatigueRapid heart rateSwelling of the feet, ankles, eyelids, and abdomenUrinating less
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A heart valve problem may be suspected if there is a heart murmur.
Images of your child's heart and its structures may be taken. This can be done with: EchocardiogramChest x-rayMRI scanCT scan
If your child has mild pulmonary valve stenosis, immediate treatment may not be needed. Your child will be monitored to look for potential problems. Other treatment options include:
Your child may need surgery to prevent heart damage. Common types of heart valve surgery include: Balloon valvuloplasty
—A balloon is inflated in the valve to stretch out the surrounding tissue. This may provide temporary relief of symptoms but the valve may become blocked again.
Open heart surgery—to repair valves that can not be opened with balloon valvuloplastyValve replacement—the valve is replaced with a mechanical or tissue valve
There are several steps your child can take to avoid some of the complications of pulmonary valve stenosis: Get regular medical care. This includes basic checkups and heart tests.Take antibiotics before any dental cleaning, dental work, or other invasive procedures if it is advised. Not all patients with valve stenosis need antibiotics for these procedures.Eat a healthy diet that is low in salt. Work with the doctor or dietitian to plan a healthy diet for your child. This may help decrease the pressure in your child’s heart and improve symptoms.
Monitor blood pressure at home. Inform the doctor if your child seems to be developing
high blood pressure
Ways to prevent heart defects are not entirely clear and may not always be possible. However, good prenatal care may reduce your risk of having a child with a heart defect. During pregnancy:
Visit your healthcare provider regularly. Prenatal
and certain genetic tests may detect a heart defect in a growing fetus.
Make sure you are practicing a healthy lifestyle. Practice nutritious eating habits and take prenatal vitamins.Do not drink alcohol, smoke, or use drugs during pregnancy.
Pulmonary stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 14, 2014. Accessed November 7, 2014.
Pulmonary stenosis. Johns Hopkins University, Cove Point Foundation website. Available at:
http://www.pted.org/?id=pulmonarystenosis3. Updated October 24, 2011. Accessed November 7, 2014.
Pulmonary stenosis. Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford website. Available at:
http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/cardiac/ps.html. Accessed November 7, 2014.
Pulmonary valve stenosis. American Heart Association website. Available at:
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/Pulmonary-Valve-Stenosis_UCM_307034_Article.jsp. Updated June 24, 2013. Accessed November 7, 2014.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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