MS is a chronic, disabling disease of the central nervous system. It causes injury to the sheath (called myelin) that covers nerve fibers in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.
MS is usually diagnosed in adults between the ages of 20-50. The condition also affects children in an estimated 2%-5% of cases.
Nerve Fiber (Neuron)
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Malfunction of the body's immune system seems to be the cause of MS. The immune system attacks and damages the myelin. The exact cause of this malfunction is unknown.
Risk factors for MS include: Sex: femaleBeing exposed to certain viruses (herpes virus-6 and Epstein-Barr virus)Having family members who have MSBeing of Northern European descentGrowing up in a colder climate, as opposed to a tropical climateHaving certain immune system genesHaving inflammation of the optic nerve
low vitamin D levels
as an adolescent appears to increase the risk of developing MS
There are many different types of MS. When it occurs during childhood, the condition usually takes the form of relapsing and remitting. This means that the symptoms suddenly reappear every few months or years, last for a few weeks or months, then go back into remission.
The symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include: Numbness or tingling in the face or limbsImpaired vision in one or both eyes (including blurred vision, double vision, loss of vision)Eye painFatigueDizzinessMuscle stiffness, spasms, weaknessPoor coordinationTrouble walking or maintaining balanceWeakness in one or more limbsBladder problems (including urgency, hesitancy, incomplete emptying, incontinence)
Bowel problems (including
Slurred speechDifficulty swallowingForgetfulness, memory loss, confusion, difficulty concentrating or solving problemsSeizures
Factors that may trigger or worsen symptoms include: Heat (including hot weather, hot baths or showers, fever)OverexertionInfection
These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. If your child has any of these, talk to the doctor.
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include: MRI scan
—a test that uses magnetic waves to make pictures of structures inside the brain and spinal cord
Sensory evoked potentials—a test that records the electrical responses evoked after a sensory stimulusLumbar puncture
(spinal tap)—removal of a small amount of fluid (CSF) from around the spinal cord to check for white blood cells, antibodies, and proteins
Blood tests to rule out other diseases that may mimic MS (eg, B12 deficiency,
Urine testsVisual evoked potential test
—to look for problems in the brain that affect vision
The goals of MS treatment are to: Relieve symptomsPrevent relapsesDelay disabilitySlow disease progression
Work with the doctor to develop a treatment plan for your child. Options include:
Examples of medicines used to treat MS in children include: Corticosteroids—to reduce inflammation and shorten MS flare-upsInterferon beta
—used to suppress the immune system
—to help prevent MS relapses by modifying the function of the immune system
Intravenous immunoglobulin (a type of antibody)
, the proteins causing the damage to the myelin are removed from the blood. During the plasma exchange, fresh plasma is added back to the blood.
Depending on the symptoms, the doctor may recommend that your child works with a: Physical therapist to help with muscle strength and tone, dexterity, and walking ability—Participating in a regular exercise program may also be helpful.Speech/language pathologistOccupational therapist to help with daily living tasksPsychologist or therapist to help with coping skills
Your child may also need support from the teachers and staff at her school.
Some people with MS have found alternative treatments, such as
helpful. If you are interested in these types of treatments for your child, talk to the doctor.
There are no guidelines for preventing MS. There may be some steps that you can take to prevent your child from having flare-ups, for example: Give your child her medicines as prescribed.Have your child avoid hot weather and hot baths and showers.Be sure that she gets adequate rest.Encourage your child to exercise regularly.Have her learn stress reduction techniques.
Try to have your child avoid infection. You can do this by:
hand washing techniquesStaying away from people who are sickCooking food thoroughly
Munger KL, et al. Body size and risk of MS in two cohorts of US women. Neurology. 2009;73(19):1543-1550.
Last reviewed June 2012 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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