Pressure helps blood flow through blood vessels. Hypertension occurs when this pressure gets too high. When this happens in the blood vessels in the lungs, it is called pulmonary hypertension.
Pressure may rise for any number of reasons. It creates a potentially serious condition. The right side of the heart needs to pump harder to move blood against the pressure. If left untreated, the right side of the heart can eventually fail.
Heart and Lungs
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The blood vessels in the lungs are very sensitive to oxygen. The lower the level of oxygen, the narrower the vessels become. Higher pressure will be needed to push blood through the narrow blood vessels. Pressure will also increase when there is more blood in the lungs than normal.
There are many different causes of pulmonary hypertension in children, such as:
Birth defects that affect the heart (eg,
, leaky heart valves)
Deformity of the chest wall (pectus excavatum)
sickle cell disease
HIVChronic lung diseaseBlood clots in the lungs
Pulmonary hypertension can also be inherited. This is called familial pulmonary hypertension. In other cases, the cause is unknown.
Risk factors include: Being born with a heart defect or a deformity of the chest wallHaving certain conditions (eg, scleroderma, sickle cell disease, lupus, HIV)Having heart or lung diseaseHaving a family member with pulmonary hypertensionLiving in a high altitude
Symptoms include: Progressive shortness of breathBlue coloring of skin around mouth, hands, and feetChest pain or pressureFast heart rateChronic coughFatigueFainting and dizzinessAnkle or leg swelling from fluid retention
If your child has any of these symptoms, talk to the doctor right away. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions.
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include the following: Blood testsBlood gas determination
—to check the concentration of gases in the blood
—a test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the chest
—a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the chest
— a test that uses a catheter and an x-ray machine to assess the heart and its blood supply
Pulmonary function tests
—a group of breathing tests to see how well the lungs are working
—a test that uses sound waves to look at the size, shape, and motion of the heart
Most cases of pulmonary hypertension are due to another condition. In this case, the doctor will treat the underlying cause.
If the doctor cannot determine the cause, your child may be treated with medicine, such as: Medicines to lower blood pressure in the lungsAnticoagulants to prevent blood clots from formingDiuretics to help the body eliminate extra fluidOxygen therapy to increase the oxygen getting into the blood streamNitric oxide to relax the muscles in the arteries of the lungs
Your child may also need oxygen therapy. In severe cases, a
may be needed.
To help reduce your child’s chance of developing pulmonary hypertension, take these steps: If your child has a condition that can lead to pulmonary hypertension, get proper treatment.
is a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension. Encourage your child to avoid smoking.
Last reviewed December 2013 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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