Leukemia is a type of cancer that develops in the bone marrow. With acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the bone marrow makes abnormal myeloid cells that are precursors to blood cells, including: Myeloblasts (a type of white blood cell) that fight infectionRed blood cells that carry oxygenPlatelets that make blood clots and stop bleeding in cuts and bruises
The leukemia cells do not function normally. They cannot do what normal blood cells do, like fight infections. The abnormal cells also overgrow the bone marrow, forcing normal cells out. Without normal cells,
and bleeding problems develop. They also cannot fight infections properly.
White Blood Cells
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Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. Normally, cells divide in a regulated manner. If cells keep dividing uncontrollably when new cells are not needed, a mass of tissue forms, called a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant growths. These growths can invade nearby tissues. Cancer that has invaded nearby tissues can then spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear exactly what causes these problems in the cells, but it is probably a combination of genetics and environment.
AML is more common in those of Hispanic descent. Other factors that may increase your child's risk of AML include:
Having a sibling, especially an identical twin, who develops leukemia
Having a genetic condition, such as
radiationExposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene, a chemical used in the cleaning and manufacturing industries
History of other blood disorders, such as
, essential thrombocytosis,
AML may cause: FeverFrequent infectionsShortness of breathPaleness (a sign of anemia)Easy bruising or bleedingPetechiae (flat, pinpoint spots under the skin caused by bleeding)Weakness, fatigueLoss of appetite, weight lossBone and joint painPainless lumps in the neck, underarms, stomach, or groinBleeding gums
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor will check for swelling of the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.
Test to assess bodily tissues or other structures include: Blood testsBone marrow biopsy
Lumbar punctureCytogenetic analysisImmunophenotyping
Imaging tests evaluate bodily structures. These may include: UltrasoundChest x-rayCT scanMRI scan
Gallium scan and
Once AML is identified, it can be classified. These subtypes are based on the type of cell from which leukemia developed. This is important because it can help the doctor make a prognosis and develop a treatment plan.
Bone Marrow Biopsy
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Talk with the doctor about the best plan for your child. Treatment of AML usually involves 2 phases: Remission induction therapy—to kill leukemia cellsMaintenance therapy—to kill any remaining leukemia cells that could grow and cause a relapse
Treatment options include: Chemotherapy
—targets a certain part of the body
Stem cell transplant
to replaces the affected bone marrow with healthy bone marrow
Other drug therapy may be used to kill leukemia cells, stop them from dividing, or help them mature into white blood cellsBiological therapy—involves using medicine or substances made by the body to increase or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancerAntibiotics to treat and prevent infectionsMedications to treat anemia and treatment side effects, such as like nausea and vomiting
There are no current guidelines to prevent AML because the cause is unknown.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 19, 2014. Accessed November 28, 2014.
Childhood leukemia. American Cancer Society website. Available at:
http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003095-pdf.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2014.
Leukemia in children. Boston Children's Hospital website. Available at:
hhttp://www.childrenshospital.org/health-topics/conditions/leukemia. Accessed November 28, 2014.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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