Kidney stones are crystallized material in the urine. These stones form in the kidneys or other parts of the urinary tract. Kidney stones may be made up of a variety of minerals in the blood. The most common are calcium, oxalate, or phosphate. Others stones may contain uric acid, struvite, and/or cystine.
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Some of the known causes of kidney stones in children include: Too much oxalate in the urineToo much calcium in the urine or bloodToo much uric acid in the urineTiny bacteria a stone can form aroundInherited abnormality in the way the body handles cystineForeign bodies in the urinary tract, like stents or catheters
Abnormal function of the urinary tract, such as
Factors that may increase your child’s chance of developing kidney stones include: Dehydration
—not drinking enough fluids
Eating foods high in salt
to help control
epilepsyMineral content of water your child drinks (hardness or softness of the water)
Having family members who have had kidney stones or
goutHaving kidney stones in the past
Medical conditions, such as
urinary tract infections or metabolic conditionsGeographic location—residents of the Southeast United States have an increased riskLimited physical activityForeign material in the urinary tract, such as a catheter
Occasionally, kidney stones do not cause symptoms, and they leave the body in the urine. Often a kidney stone can cause severe pain and symptoms such as: Sudden, severe pain in the side of the body or mid- or lower back when it movesPain in the belly or groin areaNausea or vomitingBlood in the urineBurning pain when urinatingFeverRecurring urinary tract infections
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Images of the kidneys and urinary tract may be taken with: UltrasoundKUB (kidney, ureter, bladder) x-raysSpiral CT scanRarely,
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
A 24-hour urine test may also be done to look for levels of minerals in the urine including
phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, and citrate.
Treatment depends on the size and location of the kidney stone. Treatment may include:
For small kidney stones, having your child drink plenty of water will help their body pass the stone in the urine. The doctor may provide a special cup to catch the stone when it passes so that it can be analyzed. If your child is having a hard time keeping fluids down, he or she may need to be hospitalized to receive fluids through an IV. The doctor may also give your child medications to control pain and antibiotics until the stone passes.
Your child may be advised to take: Over-the-counter pain reliversPrescription pain relieversMedication to dissolve the kidney stone
Surgery may be needed if the stone is: Very large or growing largerCausing bleeding or damage to the kidneyCausing infectionBlocking the flow of urineUnable to pass on its own
Types of surgery include:
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)—uses shock waves to break up stones that are too large to pass
Ureteroscopy and stone basketing or laser lithotripsy—camera is used to locate the stone
Stone basketing—A tiny basket is used to remove the stone.Laser lithotripsy—The stone is broken into smaller pieces with a laser if it is too large to remove. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy—uses a scope placed through a small tube in the back to remove a large stone (rare)Lithotomy—open surgery to remove a stone (rare)
Your child is likely to have another kidney stone if they had one before. To help reduce your child's chance of future stones: Have your child drink plenty of fluids, especially water. Avoid sodas.Make sure your child does not eat too much food that is high in salt, such as potato chips, french fries, or processed meats.A calcium-rich diet can help bind oxalate before it reaches the kidney. Encourage milk and yogurt.If your child is overweight, work with your child’s doctor to learn the safest way for your child to lose weight.Encourage water during sporting activities or other active playtimes.
Borghi L, Meschi T, et al. Dietary therapy in idiopathic nephrolithiasis.
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Kidney stones. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital website. Available at:
http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/k/kidney-stones. Updated March 2016. Accessed March 10, 2016.
Kidney stones. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at:
http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneystones.cfm. Published 2015. Accessed March 10, 2016.
Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 24, 2016. Accessed March 10, 2016.
6/23/2014 DynaMed's systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Elderwy AA, Kurkar A, et al. Dissolution therapy versus shock wave lithotripsy for radiolucent renal stones in children: a prospective study. J Urol. 2014;191(5 Suppl):1491-1495.
Last reviewed March 2016 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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