Rectal cancer is cancer in the rectum, the last part of the large intestine. The rectum allows waste to pass through the anal canal and out of the body.
Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. Eventually, these uncontrolled cells form a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant growths. These growths invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. It is not clear exactly what causes these problems in the cells, but is probably a combination of genetics and the environment.
Being over 50 years of age increases your chance of rectal cancer. Other factors that may increase your chance of rectal cancer include:
GeneticsHistory of colon or rectal cancer, or polypsFamily history of colon or rectal cancer, especially a parent, sibling, or childRadiation therapy for prostate cancerObesitySmoking
Diet high in fat and low in
fiberHeavy alcohol intakePhysical inactivity
In most cases, there are no symptoms with rectal cancer. When symptoms do appear, they may include:
A change in bowel habitsBlood, either bright red, or black and tarry, in the stool
Stools that are narrower than usual
Diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that the bowel does not empty completely
General abdominal discomfort, such as frequent gas pains, bloating, fullness, and/or cramps
Unexplained weight lossConstant feeling of fatigue or tiredness
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your rectum will be checked for lumps or abnormal areas.
Your bodily fluids, waste product, and tissues may be tested. This can be done with: Blood testsFecal occult blood testBiopsy
Your bodily structures may need to be viewed using an instrument. This can be done with: ColonoscopySigmoidoscopy
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with: Barium enemaCT colonographyCT scanPositron emission tomography (PET) scanTransrectal ultrasound
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment may include one or more of the following options:
Surgery is the main treatment for rectal cancer. There are several options for surgery depending on the location of the cancer and how much it has spread: Polypectomy and local excision—Early stage removal of the cancerLocal transanal resection—Removal of the cancer with a margin of surrounding healthy tissueTransanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM)—Removal of the cancer in the rectal wall with surrounding healthy tissue; the hole in the wall is sewn back togetherLow anterior resection—Removal of the cancer, surrounding healthy tissue, and lymph nodes for cancers high in the rectum, closer to the colonProctectomy—Removal of the rectum; this surgery also involves attaching the end of the colon to the anal canal in order to preserve bowel functionAbdominoperineal resection—Removal of rectum, anal canal, and surrounding tissuePelvic exenteration—Removal of rectum, anal canal, and nearby organs with cancer, such as the prostate, uterus, or bladder
Some surgeries may require temporary or permanent colostomies. A colostomy is a surgical opening through the wall of the abdomen into the colon. This is used as a path for waste material to leave the body. After a colostomy, you will wear a special bag to collect body waste. If the bladder is removed, you will also need a urostomy. A urostomy is an opening in the abdominal wall that allows for the passage of urine.
to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It is directed at the site of the tumor from a source outside the body.
This therapy is aimed at the immediate area of the cancer.
It is used alone or with
This therapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be given in many forms, including pill, injection, and via a catheter. Drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing cancer cells. They can also kill healthy cells. This therapy is systemic, meaning it affects your entire body.
Targeted therapy uses medications to target and kill cancer cells, while sparing healthy tissue. They are currently used to treat advanced cancers. Targeted therapy is less harmful to healthy tissue, which reduces side effects. It may be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy.
Some medications can be used as part of a treatment plan. Other medications may help to either prevent or reduce side effects of treatments, or to manage certain side effects if they occur. These include: CorticosteroidsBlood stem cell support medicationsAnti-nausea medicationsNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofenOpioids
The causes of most cancers are not known. However, it is possible to prevent many colon and rectal cancers by finding and removing polyps that could become cancerous. Beginning at age 50, both men and women at average risk should follow one of the following screening options: Colonoscopy every 10 yearsFlexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 yearsCT colonography every 5 yearsDouble-contrast barium enema every 5 yearsStool DNA test every 3 yearsAnnual fecal occult blood test (FOBT)Annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT)
People with any of the following risk factors should begin colon and rectal cancer screening earlier and/or undergo screening more often:
African Americans or Native AmericansHistory of colon or rectal cancer, or adenomatous polypsStrong family history of colon or rectal cancer or polypsFamily history of hereditary colon or rectal cancer syndromesHistory of chronic inflammatory bowel disease
Be sure to discuss colon cancer screening with your doctor to see how and when you should be screened.
There are also lifestyle changes that may reduce your risk of rectal cancer. These include:
If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quitDrinking alcohol in moderation—no more than 2 drinks a day if you are a man, and no more than 1 drink a day if you are a woman
healthy diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and low in red meatBeing physically active by exercising at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the weekMaintaining a healthy weight
Colorectal cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003096-pdf.pdf. Updated April 28, 2015. Accessed June 11, 2015.
Colorectal cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 22, 2015. Accessed June 11, 2015.
Colorectal cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 19, 2015. Accessed June 11, 2015.
Colorectal cancer screening tests. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/moreinformation/colonandrectumcancerearlydetection/colorectal-cancer-early-detection-screening-tests-used. Updated February 5, 2015. Accessed June 11, 2015.
General information about rectal cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at:
http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/rectal/Patient. Updated April 2, 2015. Accessed June 11, 2015.
Rex DK, Johnson DA, et al. American College of Gastroenterology guidelines for colorectal cancer screening 2009. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104(3):739-750.
11/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Kirkegaard H, Johnsen NF, et al.
Association of adherence to lifestyle recommendations and risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective Danish cohort study.
4/8/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Yee J, Kim DH, et al. Colorectal cancer screening. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/ColorectalCancerScreening.pdf. Updated 2013. Accessed June 11, 2015.
Last reviewed June 2015 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.