A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) infection occurs when bacteria enters the bloodstream through or around a
central line catheter
is a long, thin tube that is inserted through a vein in the arm. The catheter is threaded through the arm vein until it reaches a larger vein close to the heart. Commonly called a PICC line, it is used to deliver medication, nutrition, IV fluids, and
Veins in the Arm
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If bacteria start to grow on the
central line catheter
, they can easily enter the blood and cause a serious infection. This can lead to a condition called
, which occurs when bacteria overwhelm the body.
Bacteria normally live on the skin. Since the catheter is inserted through your skin, these bacteria will sometimes track along the outside of the catheter. From the catheter, they can get into your bloodstream.
Factors that increase your chances of developing this infection include: Having a catheter for a long timeHaving a catheter that is not coated with a substance that kills bacteriaHaving a catheter inserted into a vein in the thighHaving a weakened immune systemBeing in the intensive care unitHaving an infection elsewhere in the body or skin
Symptoms may include: FeverShaking, chillsFast heart rateRedness, swelling, or tenderness at the catheter siteDrainage from the catheter site
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with: Blood testsCultures
Images may be taken of your heart. This can be done with
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following: Antibiotics—Antibiotics are medications used to treat an infection. The kind of antibiotic you will be given depends on which bacteria is found in your blood.Central line care—Often, the PICC line will need to be removed and replaced by a new catheter.
When you are getting a PICC line placed, the staff will take steps to reduce your risk of infection.
There are also steps that you can take to reduce your risk of infection: Ask the staff to take every precaution to prevent an infection.Tell the staff right away if the bandage needs to be changed or if the site is red or sore.Ask everyone entering your hospital room to wash their hands. Do not allow visitors to touch your catheter.
Follow all instructions concerning your PICC line.
Learn how to take care of your catheter. Follow these general guidelines:
Follow specific instructions about showering and bathingBefore touching the catheter, wash your hands or use a hand sanitizer. Wear gloves when touching the area.Change bandages as directedWash the catheter caps with an antiseptic.Do not allow anyone to touch the catheter or the tube.Check the insertion site daily for signs of infection, such as redness or pain.Call your doctor if you think you have an infection.
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/bsi/bsi.html. Updated May 17, 2012. Accessed August 13, 2013.
Central venous catheter. American Thoracic Society website. Available at:
http://patients.thoracic.org/information-series/en/resources/central-venous-catheter.pdf. Accessed August 13, 2013.
Marschall J, Mermel LA, et al. Strategies to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008 Oct;29 Suppl 1:S22-S30.
Last reviewed January 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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