Chiropractic is a medical system founded in 1895 by Canadian Daniel David Palmer. It is based on the theory that many illnesses originate in the spine, and for this reason it focuses on spinal manipulation. Chiropractic physicians may also use physical therapy techniques and methods drawn from other branches of alternative medicine such as herbs and supplements.
Most visits to chiropractor physicians are for back pain, but it is also commonly used to treat:
HeadachesNeck painPain in other areas, such as the shoulders, knees, and jawColic
Chiropractic theory has based itself on “subluxations,” or vertebrae that have shifted position in the spine. These subluxations are said to affect nerve outflow and cause disease in various organs. A chiropractic treatment is done to "put back in" these "popped out" vertebrae. For this reason, it is called an “adjustment.”
However, no real evidence has ever been presented showing that a given chiropractic treatment alters the position of any vertebrae. In addition, there is no real evidence that impairment of nerve outflow is a major contributor to common illnesses, or that spinal manipulation changes nerve outflow in such a way as to affect organ function.
Other theories suggest that chiropractic manipulation may relieve pain by “loosening” vertebrae that have become immobile rather than by changing their position. In addition, the sudden movements of manipulation may alter the response patterns of nerves in the spine, again relieving pain.
While many people seek chiropractic treatment for back and neck pain, the current research suggests that chiropractic may offer just a modest benefit. As with most other alternative therapies, more high-quality studies are needed before researchers can come to any definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of chiropractic treatment. The strongest evidence so far seems to be in the treatment of migraine headaches—with chiropractic treatment offering long- and short results in the form of fewer and less severe migraines.
Chiropractic has also been studied as a treatment for
numerous other conditions, like asthma and
menstrual pain. Thus far, the results of studies have been inconclusive.
Chiropractic manipulation appears to be generally safe, rarely causing significant side effects. The most common reaction is local discomfort following therapy, which generally disappears within hours of treatment. Other side effects include temporary headache, tiredness, and discomfort radiating from the site of the adjustment.
Stroke is a reported rare side effect of chiropractic treatment on the neck. Other rare side effects include: Worsening of disc herniationIncreased sensation of nerve pinching
Because of these rare risks, talk to your doctor before you undergo chiropractic manipulation of your neck.
A chiropractor must have a four-year Doctor of Chiropractic (DC) degree and also must have a state license. To find a doctor in your area, websites like the American Chiropractic Association offer searchable databases. You can also ask your doctor for a recommendation.
Chiropractic. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated August 2013. Accessed January 17, 2014.
Chiropractors. Occupational Outlook Handbook website. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Chiropractors.htm. Published March 29, 2012. Accessed April 16, 2012.
History of chiropractic care. American Chiropractic Association website. Available at: http://www.acatoday.org/level3_css.cfm?T1ID=13&T2ID=61&T3ID=149. Accessed January 17, 2014
Low back pain. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons website. Available at:
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00311. Updated December 2013. Accessed January 17, 2014.
Last reviewed January 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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