Multiple trials of chemotherapy for esophageal cancer have produced up to a 50% response rate. However, the responses are short-lived and have neither cured nor improved long-term survival. Response rates do not differ between squamous cell and adenocarcinoma.
Practically every type of chemotherapeutic agent has been used to treat esophageal cancer. Among the more successful are: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)Docetaxel (Taxotere)Irinotecan (Camptosar)Mitomycin (Mutamycin)Paclitaxel (Taxol, Onxol)Vindesine (Eldisine)Vinorelbine (Navelbine)
Single agent chemotherapy has produced brief responses in 15% to 30% of patients. Combination treatment with a cisplatin-based combination of two or three agents, either alone or as a prelude to
, has resulted in response rates up to 50%, but with no clear increase in survival. Combining chemotherapy with
and/or surgery has also failed to produce a clearly preferable treatment regimen.
Platinum-based drugs used for chemotherapy include the following: Carboplatin (Paraplatin)Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)
Cisplatin is used alone for esophageal cancer and in combination with paclitaxel to treat advanced disease. Due to its lower toxicity, carboplatin is being tested as a substitute for cisplatin in this combination.
Possible side effects of platinum coordination complexes include: Life-threatening allergic reactionsKidney damageHearing lossLow blood countsLiver damageNerve damageBlood vessel damageHair loss
Common name: mitomycin (Mutamycin)
Mitomycin is used alone or in combination to treat esophageal cancer.
Possible side effects of anticancer antibiotics include: Low blood counts (most common and severe)RashesHair lossInjection site inflammationKidney damageLung damageFeverNauseaVomiting
Common name: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)
5-FU is one of several chemotherapeutic agents commonly used to treat carcinomas. It can be used alone or in combination.
Possible side effects of antimetabolites include: Mouth and throat inflammationLow blood countsSevere allergic reactionsVisual impairmentLiver damageFeverNosebleedsWeaknessConfusionHeadacheHeart pain
NauseaVomitingDiarrheaStomach ulcersDiscoloration of skin
Common names include: Docetaxel (Taxotere)Paclitaxel (Taxol, Onxol)
Paclitaxel combined with cisplatin or carboplatin is a favored regimen for treating esophageal cancer. It produces complete disease regression in about 25% of patients with Stage III disease. Large studies to support its superiority over other chemotherapy drugs have not been performed.
Docetaxel works similarly to paclitaxel and appears to be at least as effective.
Possible side effects of taxanes include: Life-threatening allergic reactionsLow blood pressureHeart damage (slowing of the heart rate)Low blood countsNerve damageNauseaVomitingDiarrheaUnusual infectionsEdema (swelling)
Common names include: Vindesine (Eldisine)Vinorelbine (Navelbine)
Vindesine and vinorelbine are newer derivatives of vinblastine that appear to be effective even when vinblastine and vincristine are not.
Possible side effects of vindesine and vinorelbine include: Bone marrow damageNerve damageHeadacheFace painNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipationLiver damageInflammation of the mouthFeverHair lossRashesMuscle damage
Common name: irinotecan (Camptosar)
This type of drug damages DNA during cell replication. Since cancer cells replicate faster than healthy cells, the effect is concentrated in tumor tissue. Irinotecan has shown promise in single agent treatment of esophageal cancer and in combinations.
Possible side effects of irinotecan include: Low blood countsNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal painLiver damageBlood clotsLow blood pressureBreathing problemsInflammation of the mouthLightheadednessSleepinessInsomniaFeverHeadacheHair lossRashes