Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the back up of acid or food from the stomach to the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects the mouth and stomach. GER is common in infants. It may cause them to spit up. Most infants outgrow GER within 12 months.
GER that progresses to esophageal injury and other symptoms is called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The backed-up acid irritates the lining of the esophagus. It causes heartburn, a pain in the stomach and chest. GERD requires treatment to avoid complications.
GERD can occur at any age.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
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The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a muscular ring between the esophagus and the stomach. It relaxes to let food pass into the stomach, then closes shut to prevent it from backing up. With GERD, the ring doesn't close as tightly as it normally should. This causes acid reflux, a burning sensation that can be felt below the breastbone. Problems with the nerves that control the LESProblems with LES muscle toneImpaired peristalsis—muscular contractions that propel food toward the stomachAbnormal pressure on the LESIncreased relaxation of the LESIncreased pressure within the abdomen
GERD may cause: Chronic heartburn—most common symptomRegurgitation or vomitingGreen or yellow-green vomitBloody vomitWeight loss or poor weight gainDifficulty swallowingPain in the abdomen or chest
Cough or wheezingHoarsenessDental problems due to the effect of the stomach acid on the tooth's enamelFeeling full almost immediately after eating
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your child may need to see a pediatric gastroenterologist. This type of doctor focuses on diseases of the stomach and intestines.
Images may be needed of your child's stomach and esophagus A biopsy may be done at the same time. Images can be done with: upper GI seriesupper endoscopy
Other tests may include: 24-hour pH monitoring—A probe is placed in the esophagus to measure the level of acid.Short trial of medications—The doctor may use the success or failure of a medication to understand the cause.
Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include the following:
Your child's doctor may suggest making lifestyle changes before trying medication. These changes may include:
Eating small, frequent meals.Avoid eating 2-3 hours before bedtime.Raising the head of your child's bed.Having your child lie on his or her left side when sleeping.
Your child may need to avoid certain foods and drinks, such as:
ChocolateFried foodsPeppermintSpicy foodsCaffeine productsCarbonated drinksFoods high in fat and acidIf your child is overweight, your doctor will advise you on a safe way to help your child return to a healthy weight.Avoid exposing your child to secondhand smoke.
Medication may be needed to relieve symptoms and heal any damage to the esophagus. Many medications for GERD are available over-the-counter and by prescription.
Your child's doctor may recommend the following: H-2 blockersProton pump inhibitorsPromotility drugs—to help stomach emptying (not used often)
Surgery or endoscopy may be recommended for
more severe cases. It may be considered if lifestyle changes and medications do not work.
The most common surgery is called
fundoplication. During this procedure, a part of the stomach will be wrapped around the stomach valve. This makes the valve stronger. It should prevent stomach acid from backing up into the esophagus. This surgery is often done through small incisions in the skin.
There are no current guidelines to prevent GERD.
GI Kids—North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children and adolescents. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/ger-and-gerd-in-children-and-adolescents/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed March 9, 2016.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 22, 2016. Accessed March 9, 2016.
Pediatric GE reflux clinical practice guidelines.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.
Treating GERD. Ohio State University Medical Center website. Available at:
Accessed March 9, 2016.
5/12/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: recognition, diagnosis and management in children and young people. London (UK): National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE); 2015 Jan 14. 34 p. (NICE guideline; no. 1). Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=48992#Section420. Accessed March 9, 2016.
Last reviewed March 2016 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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