Ileus is a type of nonmechanical bowel obstruction. It results when peristalsis stops. Peristalsis is the wavelike contractions that push contents through the digestive system.
Small Bowel Distention
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Ileus is caused by damage to the nerves controlling the intestines from surgery, infection, low blood flow, trauma, medications, or changes in the body chemistry.
Factors that increase your chance of ileus include: Abdominal, joint, or spine surgeryIntestinal injury or traumaSevere generalized traumaAbdominal bleeding.
Infections, such as:
appendicitis, kidney infection, and
Severe generalized infections such as
or strokeImbalance of electrolytes, especially potassium and calciumDisorders that affect muscle functionUse of certain drugs, such as narcotic pain drugs, high blood pressure medication, or chemotherapyA previous history of ileus
Symptoms of ileus may include: Abdominal swellingPainVomitingCrampsHiccupsInability to pass stool or gas
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam and blood tests will be done. A diagnosis of ileus is usually based on symptoms and results of imaging studies.
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with: X-raysCT scanBarium enema
The lining of your colon may need to be examined. This can be done with a
If ileus was caused by surgery, stress, or trauma it will usually resolve within 48-72 hours. In other cases, the disease or abnormality that caused the ileus needs to be treated. This may involve adjusting the dose of
a medication, treating an infection,
or replacing electrolytes.
Other treatments may be used to help ease symptoms. These may include:
People who have ileus should not be fed until the ileus has resolved.
A tube is inserted through the nose and into the stomach to remove digestive fluids. This will help relieve pain and bloating.
IV fluids and electrolytes are given to avoid dehydration.
There are medications that increase peristalsis, such as neostigmine and tegaserod, which can be used in some to help ileus resolve.
A flexible tube may be inserted into the colon to relieve pressure.
Rarely, surgery is required if there is a perforation or other abnormality causing the ileus.
Since ileus is generally the result of injury, surgery, or a medical condition, there is little that can be done to prevent it.
Intestinal obstruction and ileus. Patient UK website. Available at:
http://patient.info/doctor/intestinal-obstruction-and-ileus. Accessed July 25, 2015.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Daus Mahnke, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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