Discs lie between the spinal bones (vertebrae). They serve as shock absorbers. Discs protect the spine and help it stay flexible. Degenerative disc disease is wear and tear on these discs. This wear and tear causes pain and other symptoms. Some degeneration is normal as you age. Not all degeneration will result in symptoms of this disease.
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The disc loses fluid and is not as resilient as normal. The fibrous tissue, which holds the disc material in place, may suffer small tears. These tears lead to further damage. There is some evidence that genetics may play a part for some people.
Factors that may increase your chance of degenerative disc disease include: Increased ageFamily history of degenerative disc diseaseSportsBack injurySmokingHeavy physical workObesity
Degenerative disc may cause: Pain in the low back, buttocks, thighs, or neckPain that worsens when sitting, bending, lifting, or twistingPain that feels better when walking, changing positions, or lying downPeriods of severe pain that gets better after a few days or monthsNumbness and tingling into the legsWeakness in the legsInability to raise the foot at the ankle
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Images may be taken of the disc and surrounding area. This can be done with: MRI scanX-rayDiscography
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with: Blood testsUrine tests
Your nerves may be evaluated. This can be done with an electromyogram and
Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Treatment options include:
Therapy for this condition is focused on teaching you how to manage your back pain. This may involve: Posture trainingExerciseIce packsHeatingElectrical stimulationRelaxationOther forms of physical therapy
Steroid injections may be used for some short-term pain relief. They are injected around the nerves exiting the spinal cord.
Surgery may be required for some. Surgery may involve removing the degenerated disc and fusing two of the vertebrae together.
To help reduce your chance of degenerative disc disease:
Begin a safe
with the advice of your doctor.
If you have
osteoporosis, follow your doctor's instructions for treating the condition.
If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit.If possible, make changes to your workplace to reduce symptoms.
Bogduk N, Anat D. Degenerative joint disease of the spine. Radiol Clin North Am. 2012;15(4):613-628.
Paassilta P, Lohiniva J, et al. Identification of a novel common genetic risk factor for lumbar disk disease.
Urban J, Roberts S. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Arthritis Res Ther. 2003;5(3):120-130.
Last reviewed November 2015 by Warren A. Bodine, DO, CAQSM
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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