Definition

Anemia is a low level of healthy red blood cells (RBC). RBCs carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. When red blood cells are low the body does not get enough oxygen. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, pale skin, or irregular heartbeat.

There are several specific types of anemia, including:

    
  • Anemia of chronic disease —chronic diseases can slow the production of RBCs
  • Aplastic anemia —bone marrow is not able to produce enough RBCs
  • Iron-deficiency anemia —iron is a building block of hemoglobin
  • Macrocytic B12 deficient anemia and pernicious anemia —B12 is a building block of RBCs
  • Sickle cell anemia —RBCs have an abnormal shape that causes destruction of RBCs and low levels of hemoglobin
  • Red Blood Cells

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    Causes

    The main causes of anemia are:

        
  • Blood loss, such as that caused by:     
  • Heavy menstrual periods
  • Bleeding in the digestive tract
  • Bleeding in the urinary tract
  • Surgery
  • Trauma
  • Cancer
  • Abnormally low RBC production, due to:     
  • Kidney disease
  • Cancer
  • Infection
  • Medication
  • Radiation
  • Pregnancy
  • Lead intoxication
  • Abnormally high RBC destruction, caused by inherited disorders such as:     
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Thalassemia —difficulty in manufacturing hemoglobin
  • Enzyme deficiencies
  • Risk Factors

    Risk factors that may increase your chances of anemia include:

        
  • Women of childbearing age
  • Pregnancy
  • Older adults with other medical condition
  • Infants younger than two years
  • Poor diet low in iron, vitamins, and minerals
  • Blood loss (eg, due to surgery or injury)
  • Chronic or serious illness
  • Chronic infections
  • Family history of inherited anemia (eg, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia)
  • Symptoms

    Symptoms of anemia may include:

        
  • Tiredness
  • Feeling faint
  • Paleness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Coldness in the hands and feet
  • Pale skin
  • Chest pain
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Other tests may include:

        
  • Tests of your blood:     
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Other blood tests
  • Blood smear
  • Stool sample
  • Bone marrow aspiration or biopsy
  • Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Options include:

    Nutrition

    Your doctor may suggest changes to your diet. The diet may include foods rich in iron, vitamin C, vitamin B12, and folate. Vitamins or iron supplements may be added.

    Medications

    To help treat your anemia or your symptoms, your doctor may prescribe:

        
  • Antibiotics
  • Hormone treatment
  • Epoetin
  • Medications that act on the immune system
  • Chelation therapy (for lead poisoning)
  • Blood Transfusions

    A blood transfusion delivers blood cells from healthy donor blood.

    Bone Marrow or Stem Cell Transplant

    This procedure places healthy bone marrow or stem cells in the body. The goal is for the new tissue to produce healthy blood cells. This procedure carries risk. It is only done in severe cases of anemia.

    Surgery

    Critical bleeding may be treated with surgery. In cases of very high RBC destruction, your spleen may need to be surgically removed.

    Prevention

    Most inherited forms of anemia cannot be prevented. But the following steps may be taken to prevent certain types of anemia:

        
  • Eat a diet rich in iron and vitamins
  • Take iron or vitamin supplements, as recommended by your doctor
  • Treat underlying causes of anemia
  • Report signs and symptoms, especially chronic fatigue, to your doctor