Adolescence is a time of growth and change. Teenagers need more calories and nutrients than any other age group to support their growing bodies. Yet most teens eat too many empty-calorie foods and come up short on many important nutrients. Here you will find information on your teen’s nutritional needs and practical suggestions for helping him eat a healthier diet.
Adolescents need a lot of calories to support the rapid growth that occurs during this time and to fuel their busy lives. The amount of calories that your teen needs varies depending on age, sex, and activity level. Most adolescent girls need somewhere around 2,200 calories per day, while most adolescent boys need 2,500-3,000 calories per day.
In between school work, sports, and other activities, teens are often so busy they don’t have time to eat balanced meals that provide the calories and nutrients they need. Still, it is also easy to eat too many calories, especially when poor food choices are made. Over time, this can lead to being overweight and
. Make sure your teen gets the amount of calories they need by:
Providing them with a variety of nutrient-rich foods from all the different food groupsLimiting foods that are high in added sugar or fat, but provide little else (eg, candy bars, chips, cakes, cookies, donuts, and regular soda)Serving reasonable portion sizes and then letting your teen have more if she is still hungry (serving too much food at one time encourages overeating)
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for your teen. About 45%-65% of his calories should come from carbohydrates. Encourage your teen to choose healthy carbohydrate-rich foods, such as whole grains, fruit, vegetables, and milk. Limit foods that are high in refined flour or added sugar, such as white bread, non-whole grain crackers, cookies, juice, and soda.
Your teen needs
for growth and repair, as well as to build muscle. About 15%-25% of your teen’s calories should come from protein. Good sources include poultry, lean meat, seafood, eggs, nuts, soy, legumes, and low-fat and nonfat dairy products.
Adolescents need between 25%-35% of their calories as fat. Dietary fat provides essential fatty acids that are necessary for proper growth. It also helps transport the fat soluble vitamins
and maintain healthy skin. Your teen’s fat intake should come mostly from healthy fats, such as those found in vegetable oils (eg, canola and olive oil), nuts, avocados, olives, and fatty fish (eg, salmon, sardines, and tuna).
Research shows that many adolescents, particularly girls, do not get all the vitamins and minerals they need. If you feel your teen’s diet is not as “balanced” as it could be, ask her pediatrician about multivitamin supplementation. Also, you can serve fortified breakfast cereal.
While all vitamins and minerals are important, here are a few that adolescents often fall short on:
|Vitamin or Mineral||Importance||Good Sources|
Essential for building strong bones and teeth
Milk, cheese, yogurt, tofu, calcium-fortified orange juice, calcium-fortified cereal, and canned salmon
Important for proper growth during adolescence
Orange juice, fortified breakfast cereals, bread, milk, dried beans, and lentils
Necessary for transporting red blood cells; not getting enough from the diet can result in
Meat, chicken, fish, and fortified breakfast cereal
Helps promote proper growth and sexual maturation during adolescence
Chicken, meat, shellfish, whole grains, and fortified breakfast cereal
Necessary for proper vision, growth, and immune system functioning
Carrots, fortified breakfast cereal, milk, and cheese
Necessary for the body to use the calcium that is consumed
Fortified milk, salmon, and egg yolks—Sunshine allows your body to make vitamin D, but be aware of the dangers of getting too much sun
Helps protect the body from damage
Nuts, seeds, whole grains, spinach, and fortified breakfast cereal
Helps regulate the heartbeat, build strong bones, and keep blood pressure within a normal range
Whole grains, green vegetables, and legumes
Most adolescents do not eat enough
. Diets high in fiber tend to be lower in total calories, fat, and cholesterol than diets that are low in fiber. What’s more, research shows that a high fiber intake may help prevent heart disease and certain kinds of
. Fiber can also help prevent
and increase fullness following a meal. To be sure your teen is getting enough fiber, teach him to choose whole grains over refined grains, and encourage him to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.
While it may not be a nutrient, physical activity is a key component of any healthy diet. Encourage your teen to be physically active every day. If necessary, set limits on the amount of time spent watching TV or using the computer. All physical activity counts—whether it is being involved with school sports, taking dance lessons, shooting hoops in the driveway, or walking to school. There are countless ways to get moving.
This eating guide is based on the United States Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. It lists the main food groups, examples of the recommended daily amount for different ages, as well as suggestions about which foods to choose in each group. The recommended daily amount varies based on age, weight, sex, and activity level. Use the daily amounts below as a starting guide, then go to the
website for more individualized recommendations.
(1 ounce = 1 slice bread; ¼ bagel; ½ cup cooked pasta or rice; 5 whole-wheat crackers)
12-18 years old: 6 ounces
12 years old: 7 ounces15 years old: 9 ounces18 years old: 10 ounces|| At least ½ of grains should be whole grainsWhole grains include: whole wheat products, oatmeal, brown rice, barley, bulgur, popcorn|
(1 cup = 1 cup raw or cooked vegetables; 2 cups raw leafy vegetables)
12-18 years old: 2.5 cups
12 years old: 3 cups15 years old: 3.5 cups18 years old: 3.5 cups|| Encourage a variety of different vegetables
Provide more of the following:
Dark green (eg, broccoli, spinach, bok choy, romaine lettuce)Orange (eg, carrots, sweet potatoes, butternut squash)Dry beans and peas (eg, chickpeas, black beans, lentils, split peas, kidney beans, tofu)|
(1 cup = 1 cup fresh fruit; 1 cup fruit juice; ½ cup dried fruit)
12-18 years old: 2 cups
12 years old: 2 cups15 years old: 2 cups18 years old: 2.5 cups|| Offer a variety of fruit and 100% fruit juice|
(1 cup = 8 ounces milk or yogurt; 1½ ounces natural cheese)
12-18 years old: 3 cups
12 years old: 3 cups15 years old: 3 cups18 years old: 3 cups|| Choose low-fat or fat-free dairy products such as milk, yogurt, kefir, and cheeseMilk alternatives include calcium-rich or -fortified foods and beverages, such as soy milk and fortified orange juice|
(1 ounce = 1 ounce meat, fish, or poultry; ¼ cup cooked, dry beans; 1 egg; 1 tablespoon peanut butter; ½ ounce nuts)
12-18 years old: 5.5 ounces
12 years old: 6 ounces15 years old: 6.5 ounces18 years old: 7 ounces|| Choose lean meats and poultryOffer more fish and vegetarian sources of protein, such as beans, peas, nuts, and seeds|
Fats and Sweets
12-18 years old: 265 calories
12 years old: 290 calories15 years old: 410 calories18 years old: 425 calories|| Limit foods high in added sugar or solid fats (eg, soda, candy, cookies, muffins, chips, French fries, and fried foods)Look for products that contain no saturated or trans fats|
*The daily amounts shown here are for adolescents who are of average weight and height for their age and engage in 30-60 minutes of physical activity every day.
Encourage your teen to start the day off with breakfast. Studies show that kids learn better when fueled with breakfast, yet most teens skip this important meal. Ideally it should include foods from the different food groups. While your son or daughter may not have time for a sit-down breakfast, here are some choices that can be eaten on-the-run: Drinkable yogurt and whole-wheat toastFruit smoothie and granola barWhole-grain cereal with milk or yogurtEgg and cheese breakfast sandwich
For those who prefer non-breakfast foods, leftovers and sandwiches are good choices.
Because of their high energy needs, most teens should eat 2-3 snacks a day: a mid-morning snack, an afternoon snack, and perhaps an evening snack.
While you cannot control the snacks your child eats away from home, you can pack a healthy snack for between classes or before sports practice. Some ideas include: Fresh fruit slicesDrinkable yogurtLow-fat granola barsWhole-grain crackers and sliced cheeseString cheeseGrilled cheese on whole-wheat breadPeanut butter and jelly sandwichSliced, raw vegetables with low-fat dipWhole-grain pretzelsTrail mixHummus and pita breadBagel pizzaFrozen whole-grain wafflesAir-popped popcorn
Encourage your teen to purchase healthy lunches. If you pack a lunch for your child, ask for her input and then do your best to ensure a balanced, healthy meal. Even if your child does not eat the healthiest meal at lunch, eating something is better than nothing.
While it may be difficult to have dinner together, try to make it happen at least a few times every week. Research shows that children who eat dinner with their families tend to have higher quality diets than those who do not. A healthy dinner includes whole grains, vegetables, lean protein, and low-fat dairy, and sometimes dessert.