Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder. It is characterized by: Unpleasant sensations in the legsAn irresistible urge to move the legs
The cause of primary RLS is unknown. RLS may
have some genetic components.
In some cases, it may be caused by other conditions or certain medications. This is called secondary RLS.
Many people with RLS also have periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). This is a related motor disorder characterized by: Involuntary, repetitive, jerking movementsInterrupted sleep because of periodic leg movements
Factors that may increase your chance of getting RLS include: Family historyPregnancyCertain medications, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, caffeine, theophylline, dopamine antagonists, and sedating antihistamines
Certain chronic diseases may lead to secondary RLS. These include: Peripheral neuropathy
or iron deficiency
DiabetesChronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Symptoms may include: Feelings of tingling, creeping, pulling, prickling, pins and needles, or pain in the legs during periods of rest or inactivity—may also occur in the armsSymptoms typically get worse at nightA strong urge to relieve uncomfortable sensations with movementRestlessness, including floor pacing, tossing and turning in bed, and rubbing the legsDifficulty falling asleep and staying asleep
Symptoms may begin at any age, but they are most common in people older than 60 years old. Symptoms usually increase in the evening and during times of rest, relaxation, or inactivity. For this reason, people with RLS generally have
insomnia, which may be severe.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical and neurological exam will be done. The diagnosis is based mainly on your symptoms. There is no specific test for RLS.
Tests to check for conditions that may trigger RLS include: Blood testsMonitoring of leg activity during sleep
Study of leg muscles, such as
nerve conduction studies
Nerves of the Leg
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There is no cure for RLS. Treatments are aimed at relieving or reducing symptoms.
Massage your legs.Use a heating pad or ice pack.Take a hot bath.Avoid using tobacco, alcohol, or caffeine.Follow a sleep routine.
Begin a safe
with the advice of your doctor.
Avoid the use of medications that may worsen RLS.
Effective treatment of conditions that may trigger RLS can ease or resolve your symptoms: AnemiaDiabetes
Dopamine agonists are the only drugs that are FDA approved to treat restless leg syndrome. They are often considered the most effective type of medication for this condition.
Other medications may be used to help control symptoms of restless leg syndrome. Some medication options include clonidine, anticonvulsants, and opioids. Your doctor will select the medication based on your symptoms and medical history.
There are no current guidelines to prevent RLS because the cause is unknown.
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Last reviewed May 2016 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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