For Managing Anemia

Blood Transfusion

Blood transfusions increase the number of circulating red blood cells, treat anemia, improve oxygen delivery to organs and tissues, and prevent strokes in high-risk patients.

You may receive whole blood or packed red blood cells. A blood test will be performed to determine your blood type and to make sure you receive compatible blood. The blood will be given to you through a needle inserted into your vein. An antihistamine is sometimes given to help prevent allergic reactions during the transfusion. Your heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure will be carefully monitored throughout the procedure.

For Attempting to Cure Sickle Cell Disease

Bone Marrow Transplant

Some medical centers are performing bone marrow transplants in an attempt to cure sickle cell disease. This involves replacing the bone marrow of a sickle cell patient with normal bone marrow from a healthy donor. There are many complications involved in this procedure, and it can be difficult to find a donor whose bone marrow characteristics match yours. If a good match isn’t found, your body will reject the new bone marrow.

If you undergo a bone marrow transplant, the first step will be to destroy your current bone marrow using high-dose chemotherapy agents. You’ll then be placed on immunosuppressive drugs to prevent your body from rejecting the new donor marrow. You’ll need to take these drugs for the rest of your life. After the donor has had bone marrow removed, it will be filtered and then dripped into your body through a tube inserted into a large vein in your chest.

For Monitoring the Risk of Stroke

Ultrasound

Many centers use color doppler ultrasound for people with sickle cell to regularly check the rate of blood flow through the arteries in the neck. When blood flow speeds up there is an increased risk of stroke, which is a serious sickle cell complication. With this type of screening, blood transfusions can be given when—or possibly before—the speed of blood flow rises to potentially dangerous levels, which can decrease the risk of stroke.