A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop pneumonia with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your chance of developing pneumonia. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Smoking and Second-hand Smoke
People who smoke have a much higher risk of developing pneumonia. If you stop smoking, your risk will gradually return to normal. However, this may take as long as ten years.
You are also at risk for pneumonia if you are regularly exposed to second-hand smoke. For example, children in households where the parents smoke have higher rates of pneumonia than do children in smoke-free households.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
put you at a higher risk of pneumonia.
Intravenous drug use can increase your risk of pneumonia and other infectious diseases.
Crowded Living Conditions
The risk of pneumonia is increased among people living in crowded conditions, such as: Students in dormitoriesPatients living in institutionsMilitary personnel in barracksPeople living in nursing homes
People who are hospitalized have a much higher risk of developing pneumonia than do nonhospitalized individuals. This risk is even higher for patients who have recently undergone major surgery or who are on ventilators. Other medical conditions that can increase your risk of developing pneumonia include:
Conditions that interfere with your gag reflex:
StrokeMultiple sclerosisAmyotrophic lateral sclerosisHead injury
Conditions that weaken your immune system:
AIDSHistory of organ transplant
Chemotherapy drugsImmunosuppressant drugs (including steroids)Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
DiabetesKidney diseaseSleep apneaCongestive heart failurePoor nutritionGenerally debilitated stateAsthmaLiver diseaseVentilator use
Children have a higher risk of developing pneumonia if they have: Weakened immune systemsGastroesophageal reflux disorderLung or heart defectsAsthmaNervous system defects that affect the muscles of the mouth and/or throat
Pneumonia is more common among certain age groups: InfantsYoung childrenOlder adults
A number of genetic disorders can predispose you to pneumonia, such as: Sickle cell anemiaCystic fibrosis
Occupational exposure to toxic chemical fumes and/or smoke can weaken your lung’s defenses. This can increase your vulnerability to pneumonia germs.