The information provided here is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included, so ask your doctor if you need to take any special precautions. Use each of these medications as recommended by your doctor, or according to the instructions provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your doctor.
Many different medications are available to lower your blood pressure. Your doctor will discuss the options with you and help you select a medication plan to meet your needs. Many times more than one drug is needed to control blood pressure.
Blood pressure medications must be taken daily. Do not stop taking your medication on your own. If you develop side effects, notify your doctor.
You may be able to get the dose adjusted or have another drug prescribed to help minimize side effects while controlling your blood pressure.
can be controlled, not cured. Taking your medications as ordered is vital to controlling this condition and reducing the risk of complications. It may be necessary to take the medications indefinitely.
Be sure to discuss any questions or problems with your doctor.
Common names include: HydrochlorothiazideIndapamideSpironolactone
Diuretics help the kidneys get rid of excess water and sodium by increasing urine production. Lower fluid levels in your blood can reduce pressure on your blood vessels. These medications are sometimes referred to as “water pills.”
Possible side effects include: LightheadednessFrequent urination
Common names include: AtenololPropranolol hydrochlorideMetoprololNadololBetaxololAcebutololPindololBisoprolol
Beta blockers reduce demands on the heart by reducing the rate and force of contraction. Less force from the heart will lead to lower blood pressure.
Possible side effects include: Lightheadedness and/or fainting as a result of low blood pressureSlow heart rateFatigue
Beta blockers may not be the first-line treatment for hypertension.
Common names include: Benazepril hydrochlorideCaptoprilEnalapril maleateQuinaprilPerindoprilRamiprilTrandolaprilFosinoprilMoexiprilLisinopril
ACE inhibitors relax the blood vessels and lower blood pressure by blocking the production of a hormone that causes the blood vessels to constrict.
Possible side effects include: Dry, unproductive coughHeadacheLightheadedness and/or fainting as a result of low blood pressure
Common names include: IrbesartanLosartan potassiumValsartanCandesartanOlmesartanTelmisartanEprosartan
Angiotensin antagonists relax the blood vessels and lower blood pressure by shielding the blood vessels from a hormone that causes the blood vessels to constrict.
Possible side effects include: DiarrheaHeartburn
Common names include: Verapamil hydrochlorideDiltiazem hydrochlorideAmlodipineSustained release nifedipineFelodipineNisoldipine
Calcium channel blockers relax the blood vessels and lower blood pressure by blocking some activities of heart and blood vessel muscle cells.
Possible side effects include: LightheadednessSwelling in the legsConstipation
Common names include: PrazosinTerazosinDoxazosin
Alpha blockers lower blood pressure by decreasing nerve impulses to the blood vessels. This relaxes the blood vessels and helps lower blood pressure.
Possible side effects include: Lightheadedness and/or fainting as a result of low blood pressureHeadache
Common names include: LabetalolCarvediol
Alpha-beta blockers lower blood pressure by decreasing nerve impulses to the blood vessels. They also slow the heart rate and decrease the force of contraction. This decreases the workload of the heart and helps lower the blood pressure.
Possible side effects include: Lightheadedness and/or fainting as a result of low blood pressure especially when standing upFatigueNausea
Common names include: ClonidineMethyldopa
Nervous system drugs lower blood pressure by controlling nerve impulses and relaxing blood vessels. These drugs can be taken orally. Clonidine is available through a skin patch.
Possible side effects include: Dry mouthDrowsinessLightheadednessRedness, itching, and skin irritation (with skin patch)
Common name—hydralazine hydrochloride
Vasodilators lower blood pressure by directly relaxing blood vessel walls.
Possible side effects include: Fluid retentionRapid heart rate
If you are taking medications, follow these general guidelines: Take the medication as directed. Do not change the amount or the schedule. Ask what side effects could occur. Report them to your doctor.Talk to your doctor before you stop taking any prescription medication.Plan ahead for refills if you need them.Do not share your prescription medication with anyone.Drugs can be dangerous when mixed. Talk to your doctor if you are taking more than one drug, including over-the-counter products and supplements.
Note: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen, can elevate blood pressure and make your medications less effective. Talk to your doctor about other medications you may be able to take.
Contact your doctor if you: Develop side effects to any of the medicationsCheck your own blood pressure and it regularly runs higher or lower than the target blood pressure range set by your doctor
Antihypertensive drugs and dosing. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 26, 2014. Accessed February 28, 2014.
Antihypertensive medication selection and management. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 12, 2014. Accessed February 28, 2014.
How is high blood pressure treated? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
website. Available at:
Updated August 2, 2012. Accessed February 28, 2014.
Hypertension. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 12, 2014. Accessed February 28, 2014.
Medications and blood pressure. American Heart Associatin website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/PreventionTreatmentofHighBloodPressure/Medications-and-Blood-Pressure_UCM_301888_Article.jsp. Updated February 26, 2014. Accessed February 28, 2014.
The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 Report.
2/28/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: CS Wiysonge, H Bradley, Volmink J, et al. Beta-blockers for hypertension.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;11:CD002003.
4/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Choosing wisely. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 26, 2014. Accessed April 2, 2014.
Last reviewed September 2015 by Michael J. Fucci, DO
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.