Gout is a form of arthritis caused by a build up of crystals in the joint. It most often affects the joint of the big toe, but can but it can affect other joints as well. Gout may occur in a single attack or become a recurrent problem. During acute attacks, gout can cause pain, swelling, and redness in the affected joint. Periods between acute attacks are usually symptom-free.
Over time, gout can cause permanent damage to the affected joints and the kidneys. Gout can also create a collection of crystals under the skin called tophi. The tophi are visible lumps under the skin that can show up anywhere in the body and become tender during acute attacks. Fortunately, these long term factors are less likely to occur with proper treatment. The earlier gout is detected and treated, the better it can be managed.
Gout is caused by the build-up of uric acid crystals in and around a joint. Crystals often form because of high levels of uric acid in the blood.
Uric acid is created and released into the blood during the breakdown of a substance in food called purines. The uric acid is then filtered out of the blood through the kidneys and passes out of the body through urine. Higher than normal levels of uric acid in the blood may be caused by: Impaired ability to clear the uric acid in the kidneys, which may occur with kidney damage or disease
Increased production of uric acid, which may be caused by one or more of the following:
Excess consumption of foods high in purines like steak, seafood, and organ meatsConsumption of foods that encourage high uric acid levels, such as alcohol or sugary drinksCertain medications, such as diuretics, salicylate containing medications (like aspirin), niacin, or levodopa
Medical conditions such as
high blood pressure
, Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome or Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Gout. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at:
http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases_And_Conditions/Gout. Updated September 2012. Accessed December 5, 2014.
Gout. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 28, 2014. Accessed December 5, 2014.
Pittman JR, Bross MH. Diagnosis and management of gout. Am Fam Physician. 1999;59(7):1799-1806.
Questions and answers about gout. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Gout/default.asp#stages. Updated April 2012. Accessed December 18, 2014.
Last reviewed March 2015 by Michael Woods, MD
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