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Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection. It produces a widespread itchy rash and crusting. The varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox. The virus can spread from person to person via:
Airborne droplets of moisture containing the virusDirect contact with fluid from a chickenpox rash
The virus is most contagious for 1-2 days before the rash erupts and during the first day or so after the rash has broken out. It remains contagious until all of the blisters have crusted.
Because of an extensive
program, the incidence of chickenpox has declined greatly in the United States. The majority of cases (about 90%) occur in infants, children, and adolescents under age 14. The incidence among adults 20 or older is very low (approximately 5% of cases). When contracted during childhood, chickenpox is usually not serious. Serious complications are more common when contracted by adults (including adolescents), newborns, or people with a suppressed immune system. These complications can include:
(usually in adults or older children)
Liver or kidney inflammation
Central nervous system complications, including:
meningitisAcute cerebellar ataxia (most common)EncephalitisTransverse myelitisGuillain-Barre syndromeReye syndrome
(generally only in children and teenagers)
Bacterial infections from Group A streptococci and
leading to infections in the skin (cellulitis),
toxic shock syndrome, bacteremia, arteritis,
Bleeding problems due to low platelet countsIf a susceptible mother catches chickenpox while pregnant, damage to the baby may occasionally result. Some associated birth defects include: poor growth of arms or legs, skin scarring, small head, and perhaps intellectual disability or other abnormalities of the nervous systemShingles
is a complication of chickenpox that can occur years later.
The Merck Manual of Medical Information.
17th ed. Simon and Schuster, Inc.; 2000.
Last reviewed October 2012 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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