is a disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This virus attacks the liver. The disease can cause:
of the liver
Liver cancerLiver failureDeath
HBV is spread through the blood or other body fluids of an infected person.
Most hepatitis B infections clear up
without treatment. Others develop into chronic hepatitis B. This can lead to serious complications, even death.
The hepatitis B vaccine is produced by inserting a gene for HBV into yeast. The yeast is grown, harvested, and purified. The vaccine is given as an injection into the muscle. This is usually given in a series of 3-4 shots during a 6-month period.
Newborns routinely receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine before leaving the hospital.
Two more injections are given to all infants at: 1-2 months6-18 months
Depending on the type of vaccine, some babies may receive 4 doses.
Children and teens (aged 18 years or younger) who have not been immunized as babies can also get the vaccine. For children aged 11-15 years, there is a two-dose series available, called Recombivax HB.
It is recommended that adults (aged 18 years or older) get vaccinated if they are at high risk for hepatitis B. High risk includes: Having multiple sex partners
Getting treatment or counseling for a
sexually transmitted disease
Sex without using a condom including vaginal and anal sexBeing an IV drug user or having a history of injecting drugs
chronic kidney disease
, liver disease, or
dialysisHaving diabetes if you are younger than 60 years oldHaving a job where you might be exposed to HBV-infected blood or body fluidsWorking or living in an institution for the developmentally disabledLiving with or working with people who have chronic HBV infectionTraveling to areas where there is a high rate of HBV infection
All vaccines are capable of causing serious problems, such as a severe allergic reaction.
Most people who get the hepatitis B vaccine do not have problems. Some may have mild problems, including soreness where the shot was given and fever.
Acetaminophen is sometimes given to reduce pain and fever that may occur after getting a vaccine. In infants, the medication may weaken the vaccine's effectiveness. Discuss the risks and benefits of taking acetaminophen with the doctor.
You should not get the vaccine if you: Had a life-threatening allergic reaction to baker's yeast or to a previous dose of hepatitis B vaccineAre moderately or severely ill—Wait until you recover to get the vaccine.
Other than getting the hepatitis B vaccine, the best methods of preventing an HBV infection include: Practicing safe sexGetting a blood test for hepatitis B if you are pregnantAvoiding illegal drugsNot using other people's personal care items that may have blood on them, such as razors or toothbrushesConsidering the risks before getting a tattoo or body piercingFollowing safety precautions when handling needles or other sharp objects
In the event of an outbreak, all at risk people should be offered the vaccine.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Viral hepatitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/index.htm. Updated September 18, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hepatitis B FAQs for the public. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/B/bFAQ.htm. Updated June 9, 2009. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hepatitis B vaccination. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/hepb/default.htm. Updated February 3, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hepatitis B Vaccine Recombinant. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 8, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. Updated January 31, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Vaccine information statement: hepatitis B vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-b.html. Updated June 18, 2013. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010.
MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.
10/30/2009 2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Prymula R, Siegrist C, Chlibek R, et al. Effect of prophylactic paracetamol administration at time of vaccination on febrile reactions and antibody responses in children: two open-label, randomised controlled trials.
Last reviewed August 2014 by Kim Carmichael, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.