Indigestion is discomfort in the upper abdomen or chest. It is often linked to nausea, belching, or bloating.
Locations of Indigestion Symptoms
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The exact cause is not known. Most often, the condition is linked to a number of unhealthy lifestyle factors. These factors can result in poor digestion.
The following lifestyle factors increase your chances of experiencing indigestion: OvereatingEating too quickly or at irregular intervalsEating greasy, high-fat, or spicy foodsDrinking caffeine, alcohol, or soft drinks in excess
Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (eg,
Indigestion is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including: Pain or burning sensation in the upper abdomen or chestNauseaAbdominal bloatingBelching or regurgitation
It is common to have indigestion occasionally. If the episodes worsen or happen more frequently, make an appointment to see your doctor. If you have indigestion, important reasons to call your doctor include: Having trouble swallowingVomiting with most episodesExperiencing weight lossBeing aged 55 or olderHaving a family history of cancer
Call for medical help or go to the emergency room right away if you have: Severe abdominal painBlood in your stool or dark black stoolBlood in the vomitTrouble breathingChest pain
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. Indigestion is diagnosed mainly on the symptoms listed above.
Tests may be ordered if your symptoms worsen or you have more serious symptoms, like severe abdominal pain. Examples of tests that may be ordered include: Laboratory blood workBarium x-ray
—a chalky solution is used to highlight the upper digestive tract
in an x-ray
—high-frequency sound waves a used to view and examine the organs of the abdominal cavity
Endoscopy—a long, thin tube affixed with a light and camera is inserted into the throat to examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and upper part of the small intestineGastric emptying study—food containing a small amount of radioactive material is tracked to help determine the rate at which the stomach empties of food
Your doctor will suggest a plan based on the severity of your symptoms. Treatment options may include the following:
Your doctor may advise you to: Reduce your intake of fatty and spicy foods.Eat smaller meals throughout the day (instead of three large meals).Reduce your intake of alcohol, caffeine, and carbonated beverages.
If you smoke,
Avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).If stress is related to your symptoms, find ways to manage stress.Lose weight if you are overweight.Exercise regularly
Medicines your doctor may recommend include:
Maalox Advanced Regular Strength, Mylanta)—to help neutralize stomach acid
Acid suppression agents (eg
Prokinetic agents—to help the stomach empty its contents more quicklyAntidepressants—to treat the pain associated with indigestion
Antibiotics—to treat a bacterial infection
) (only used if tests confirm that you have this infection)
If the discomfort persists, your doctor may order tests to determine if the symptoms are related to a more serious condition, such as: GastritisPeptic ulcer
To prevent indigestion: Avoid overeating.Eat slowly and regularly.Avoid greasy, high-fat foods.Limit spicy foods.Do not smoke.Drink coffee, alcohol, and caffeinated beverages in moderation.Maintain a healthy weight.Exercise regularly.
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Tack J, Talley NJ, Camilleri M, et al. Functional gastroduodenal disorders.
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Last reviewed September 2012 by Daus Mahnke, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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