Fallopian tubes are tubes that lead from the ovaries to the uterus. A tubal ligation is a sterilization procedure to close the tubes.
Options to Close Tubes
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Tubal ligation is done to prevent pregnancy.
If you have this surgery, you will still ovulate and menstruate. The cut or blocked tubes keep the egg and sperm separated. When the egg and sperm cannot meet, fertilization does not happen and pregnancy cannot occur.
This surgery is not recommended as a temporary or reversible procedure. Make sure you and your partner consider all the birth control options.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Potential problems include: InfectionBleedingAdverse reactions to anesthesiaDamage to other organsEctopic pregnancy
Some factors that may increase the risk of problems include: SmokingObesityPrevious abdominal surgery
A physical exam and pregnancy test will be done.
Leading up to your procedure:
You may need to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure.
The night before, eat a light meal. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.
You may receive one of the following: General anesthesia
—blocks pain and keeps you asleep through the surgery
—numbs the area from the chest down to the legs; given as an injection in the back
A small cut will be made in the area of the navel. A harmless gas will then be inserted through this cut and into your abdomen. The gas will inflate the abdominal cavity. This will make it easier to view the internal organs. A long, thin instrument called a laparoscope will be inserted. It will contain a small camera and lighting system, which will let the doctor see inside the abdomen. A second cut may be made just above the pubic hair to insert an instrument for grasping the fallopian tubes. The tubes will be closed in one of the following ways: Ligation—tying and cutting of the tubeSealing by creating scar tissueRemoving a small piece of the tubeApplying plastic bands or clips
The instruments will then be removed and the openings will be closed with stitches.
In some cases, the doctor may switch to an
open surgery. This involves making a larger incision.
You will be brought into the recovery room. You will rest there until the anesthesia wears off. You may receive pain medication.
Anesthesia will keep you comfortable and pain free during the procedure. You may feel bloated and have pain in your shoulder or chest because of the air inserted into your abdomen. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
You can usually go home the same day. You may need to stay longer if you have complications.
To help ensure a smooth recovery: Follow your doctor's instructions on cleaning the incision site to prevent infection.Ask your doctor about when it is safe to shower, bathe, or soak in water.
Call your doctor if any of the following occur: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or discharge from the incision sitesSevere and continuous abdominal painNausea and vomiting lasting more than a dayCough, shortness of breath, or chest painLightheadedness or faintingPain and or swelling in one or both legsHeavy vaginal bleeding after the first dayMissed menstrual period
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical help right away.
Peterson HB. Sterilization.
Sterilization for women and men. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at:
http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq011.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130422T1556422204. Updated August 2011. Accessed March 18, 2014.
Sterilization for women (tubal sterilization). Planned Parenthood website. Available at:
http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/birth-control/sterilization-women-4248.htm. Accessed March 18, 2014.
Tubal sterilization. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at:
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/sex-birth-control/birth-control/tubal-sterilization.html. Updated July 2010. Accessed March 18, 2014.
Tubal sterilization. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 26, 2013. Accessed March 18, 2014.
6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mills E, Eyawo O, et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am J Med.
Last reviewed January 2015 by Andrea Chisholm, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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