Surgical removal of a toe, foot, or part of a foot
Amputation is most often done to: Treat infections
Remove dead or damaged tissue due to
or serious trauma
Gangrene of Foot
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Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like: Difficulty healingInfectionStump pain—severe pain in the remaining tissuePhantom limb pain
—a painful sensation that the foot or toe is still there
Continued spread of gangrene, requiring amputation of more areas of your foot, toes, or legBleedingNerve damageLimp or trouble walking, depending on which toe or how much of the foot has been removedContracture
Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications, such as: SmokingDrinking
Chronic diseases, such as
Before the surgery, your doctor may do some of the following: Blood testsX-ray
of toe and foot
to see if the bone is infected
Tests to evaluate blood circulation and help the doctor determine how much of the foot or toe needs to be amputated
Talk to the doctor about the medications you are taking. You may need to stop taking some medications up to 1 week before the procedure.
In the days leading up to your surgery: Arrange for a ride to and from the hospital.Arrange for help at home after the surgery.The night before, eat a light meal. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.You may be asked to shower the morning of your procedure. You may be asked to use a special antibacterial soap.
Based on your surgery and general health, you may have: General anesthesia
—You will be asleep.
Local anesthesia—The area that is being operated on will be numbed.Spinal anesthesia
—Medication is delivered to the spine to numb the lower body.
You will be given IV fluids and antibiotics. Your foot will be washed with an antibacterial solution. The surgeon will make an incision into the skin around the area. The blood vessels will be tied off or sealed with an electrical current. This will prevent bleeding. The involved bones will be removed.
The ends of the remaining bone(s) will be smoothed. The remaining skin and muscle will be pulled over the open area. It will be closed with stitches. A sterile dressing will then be placed over the incision.
If there is an active infection, tubes may be left in place to allow fluids to drain. In some cases, the skin will not be closed but will instead be packed with a moist dressing.
Amputation of Crushed Toe
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You will be taken to a recovery room. There, you will be monitored for any negative effects from the surgery or anesthesia.
You will be given pain medication. You may also receive more antibiotics.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
The usual length of stay is 2-7 days. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications arise.
Your foot will be kept elevated.The remaining toes or foot will be wrapped with a bulky dressing. This will protect it from injury.You will be encouraged to get up and begin walking as soon as the wound allows.A physical therapist will likely assist you in walking at first.
You may have to restrict specific activities until you're healed. You may be advised to begin an exercise, physical therapy, or rehabilitation program. Your doctor may prescribe medications for pain or other conditions that need to be managed.
Contact your doctor if your recovery is not progressing as expected or you develop complications, such as: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or any discharge from the incision siteChalky white or blackish appearance of foot, other toes, or legDecreased sensation, numbness, or tingling in the rest of your foot, toes, or legPersistent nausea or vomitingPain that you cannot control with the medications you have been givenCough, shortness of breath, or chest painJoint pain, fatigue, stiffness, rash, or other new symptoms
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
Baima J, Trovato M, Hopkins M, deLateur B. Achieving functional ambulation in a patient with Chopart amputation.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;87(6):510-513
Frykberg RG. Diabetic foot ulcers:
pathogenesis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66(9):1655-1663.
Parrett B, Pribaz J, Matros E, et al. Risk analysis for the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap in distal leg reconstruction.. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123(5):1499-1504
Last reviewed November 2015 by Donald Buck, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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