Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder. It is an irrational fear of being trapped in places or situations where escape is difficult. People with agoraphobia may not be able to leave the house.
The exact cause of anxiety disorders is not known. Factors that may contribute to the development of agoraphobia include: GeneticsChanges in brain chemistry or activityHaving a nervous system that reacts excessively, even to normal stimuliIncreased awareness of physical changes, such as increased heart rateDistorted thinking, which may start a cycle of fear
Agoraphobia often develops in people with
panic disorders. These disorders are associated with frequent and severe panic attacks. Agoraphobia may develop when people begin to avoid certain places or situations to prevent these panic attacks.
Changes or genetic problems in the nervous system (brain and nerves) may contribute to agoraphobia.
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Agoraphobia is nearly twice as common in women than in men. Other factors that may increase your chance of agoraphobia include: History of panic attacks or panic disorderA tendency to be nervous or anxiousStressful situationsFamily members with panic disorder or phobiasHistory of exposure to traumatic eventsOther psychiatric disorders
Symptoms include: Fear of open spaces, crowds, bridges, or standing in lineFear of enclosed spaces, such as cars, buses, trains, or airplanes, or being in a small theater or shopFear that escape may be difficult when feelings of anxiety occurCreation of a safe zone
when outside the safe zone
Fear of being alone outside of the homeAvoidance of situations that might cause a panic attackRestriction of activities outside the homeFeeling of being safer with a trusted friend or family member
Feared situations may trigger a panic attack. Attacks start quickly and peak in about 10 minutes. A panic attack usually includes four or more of the following: Intense fearShakingRapid heartbeatPounding or racing feeling in the chestSweatingBlushingShortness of breathChest painLightheadednessHot flashes or chillsNumbness or tinglingNauseaFeeling of loss of control or "going crazy"
Fear of having a
Agoraphobia is also commonly associated with the following conditions: Panic disorderDepression
AnxietyPost-traumatic stress disorder
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Agoraphobia will be diagnosed by the type and duration of symptoms.
You may be asked questions about your: Use of alcohol and drugsMental health historyFamily's mental health history
There are no tests for agoraphobia or panic disorder. Your doctor may order heart or blood tests done to look for an underlying cause.
Treatment aims to help you overcome irrational fears and live more independently. Goals include: Reducing the number and severity of panic attacksLearning to manage panic attacks that do occur
Treatment of agoraphobia is similar to the treatment of
panic disorder. Treatments may include:
Lifestyle changes may include: Regular exerciseGetting enough sleep every nightRelaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation, and yoga
Avoiding anxiety triggers, such as tobacco, caffeine, and drugsDrinking alcohol in moderationAwareness of stressful situations and learning how to manage it
Have a strong support system of family and friendsConsider family therapy to help with understanding and coping skillsJoin a support group
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help to change troublesome thought patterns.
It will help you learn how you can alter your actions. The combination therapy will help you: Identify and change anxious thoughtsUse relaxation techniques to decrease feelings of anxietyControl breathing by taking slower, deeper breathsCope with physical changes associated with anxietyConfront feared situations
Exposure therapy exposes you to the factor causing the fear while in a safe environment. The sessions often include repeated, detailed imagining of the traumatic experience. The therapy will help people face their fear and gain control of it while it is happening. Exposure therapy methods range anywhere from a gradual approach to the fear to complete confrontation all at once.
Exposure therapy may be done alone or in combination with other treatments.
Your doctor may prescribe medication as well as therapy. Medication options may include: Antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)Benzodiazepines—may cause dependenceOther anti-anxiety medications
It is important to take all medications as instructed by the doctor.
Agoraphobia often develops as a response to panic attacks. If you have had a panic attack, instead of avoiding the place or situation, seek medical care. Early treatment for panic attacks can help prevent agoraphobia.
Lenders JW, Eisenhofer G, et al. Phaeochromocytoma.
Panic disorder & agoraphobia. Anxiety and Depression Association of America website. Available at:
http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/panic-disorder-agoraphobia. Accessed January 26, 2016.
Phobias. Mental Health America website. Available at:
http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/conditions/phobias. Accessed January 26, 2016.
Symptoms. Anxiety and Depression Association of America website. Available at:
http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/panic-disorder-agoraphobia/symptoms. Accessed January 26, 2016.
What are anxiety disorders? American Psychiatric Association website. Available at:
http://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/anxiety-disorders/what-are-anxiety-disorders. Accessed January 26, 2016.
What is posttraumatic stress disorder? American Psychiatric Association website. Available at:
http://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/ptsd/what-is-ptsd. Accessed January 26, 2016.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Adrian Preda, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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