An ankle fracture is a break of a bone in the ankle joint. The joint is made up of 3 bones: Tibia (shin bone)—The main bone of the lower leg that runs along the inside of the legFibula—The smaller bone of the lower leg that runs along the outside of the legTalus—The bone that provides the connection between the leg and the foot, and is less often fractured than the others
The ankle joint is supported by 3 groups of ligaments. An injury that causes a fracture may also damage one or more of these ligaments.
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An ankle fracture can occur when the joint is forced beyond its normal range of motion. It can also be caused by a direct blow to the bone itself. Any form of ankle trauma may cause injury, including: FallsTwistsBlowsCollisions
Factors that increase your chances of getting an ankle fracture include: Decreased muscle massOsteoporosis
—common in women after
and in older, less active peopleAny condition that increases the risk of falls, such as poor muscle control or poor balanceParticipation in certain sports, such as basketball, football, soccer, and skiingBeing overweight
Symptoms include: Immediate pain—can be severe, but sometimes with fibula injuries, is surprisingly minorSwellingBruising around the injured areaTenderness when touching the injured bone in the ankle areaInability to put weight on the injured foot without pain, although some people are able to walk with minor fractures
You will be asked about your symptoms, physical activity, and how the injury occurred. An examination of the injured area will be done.
Images may be taken of your ankle. This can be done with
x-rays. If additional details are needed, other images may be done, such as a CT scan or an MRI scan.
Treatment will depend on the severity of the injury. Treatment includes: Putting the pieces of the bone back into position, which may require anesthesia and/or surgeryHolding the pieces together while the bone heals itself
Devices that may be used to hold the bone in place while it heals include: A cast—may be used with or without surgeryA metal plate with screws—requires surgeryScrews alone—requires surgeryA rod down the middle of the bone—requires surgery
Your doctor may prescribe pain medication. More x-rays will be ordered while the bone heals to ensure that the bones have not shifted position.
When your doctor decides you are ready, start range-of-motion and strengthening exercises. You may be referred to a physical therapist to help you with these exercises. Do not return to sports activity until your doctor says your ankle is fully healed. You will need near-normal motion and muscle strength.
It takes at least 6-8 weeks for even a simple ankle fracture to heal. It will be several months before you can return to intense physical activity.
To help prevent ankle fractures:
Do not put yourself at risk for
to the ankle.
Do weight-bearing exercises to build strong bones.Build strong muscles to prevent falls and to stay active and agile.
American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society website. Available at:
http://www.aofas.org/footcaremd/conditions/ailments-of-the-ankle/Pages/Ankle-Fracture.aspx. Accessed August 20, 2014.
Ankle fractures (broken ankle).
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at:
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00391. Updated March 2013. Accessed August 20, 2014.
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9/10/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T903791/Ankle-fracture-emergency-management: Mosher TJ, Kransdorf MJ, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria acute trauma to the ankle online publication]. Reston (VA): American College of Radiology (ACR);2014. 10 p. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=48284#Section420. Accessed September 10, 2014.
Last reviewed September 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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