Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the attachment points between tendons, ligaments, or capsule and bone. It causes arthritis of the joints, mainly the spine and pelvis (sacroiliac joints). Ankylosing spondylitis can also cause inflammation of the eyes, lungs, or heart valves.
In severe cases, new bone may develop between the spinal bones. This can cause some areas of the spine to fuse. This fusion will decrease the flexibility and movement of the spine.
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The cause of ankylosing spondylitis is not known. Some cases may be associated with a problem in a specific gene.
Factors that may increase your chance of ankylosing spondylitis include: Family members with ankylosing spondylitisHaving a marker on HLA-B27 gene
Inflammatory bowel disease:
Ulcerative colitisCrohns disease
The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to very severe.
Common symptoms may include:
Stiffening and pain (arthritis) of the:
Lower backSacroiliac joint, where the back and hip meet, possibly radiating down the legsPain that is often worse at nightStiffness that is worse in the morningSymptom improvement with exercise or activity
Occasionally, pain and stiffness in other joints:
KneeUpper backRib cageNeckShouldersFeetChest pain, which may suggest heart, heart valve, or lung problemsEye pain, visual changes, increased tearing
Less common symptoms may include: FatigueLoss of appetite or weight lossFeverNumbness (if arthritic spurs compress the spinal nerves)Blood in the urine or swelling from kidney diseaseIrregular heart beat
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Diagnosis is based on common symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis, such as: Dramatic loss of motion of the lower back and spinePain in the lower backLimited chest expansion when taking deep breaths
Blood tests may be done to check for: HLA-B27 gene markerAbnormalities in the bloodSigns of autoimmune disease
Images of involved joints may be taken with: X-rayMRI scanCT scan
There is no cure for ankylosing spondylitis. Treatment is aimed at providing education and relieving the symptoms.
Treatments may include:
Medication may help to control pain and inflammation. They may include: Over-the-counter medication such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Prescription medication that suppresses the inflammation such as:
Prescription NSAIDsCorticosteroidsDisease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-inhibitors
Physical therapy may help prevent progression and worsening of symptoms. Treatment may include: Learning proper posture and the best positions for sleeping
Exercise program that includes:
Abdominal and back exercises (to decrease back stiffness and maintain good posture)Stretching exercisesWater exercisesBreathing exercises (in cases where the rib cage is affected)
In severe cases,
hip or joint replacement
surgery may be needed. It will be done to relieve pain and help you move around easier. In some instances, spinal surgery is needed to allow an upright posture.
There are no guidelines for preventing ankylosing spondylitis because the cause is unknown.
Spondylitis Association of America website. Available at:
Accessed December 17, 2014.
Ankylosing spondylitis. University of Washington Orthopedics and Sports Medicine Department website. Available at:
Accessed December 17, 2014.
Firestein ED et al.
Kelley’s Textbook of Rheumatology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2008.
10/2/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: FDA approves new drug to treat psoriasis. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm183851.htm. Updated April 17, 2013. Accessed December 17, 2014.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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