Definition

Diarrhea is more than three loose, liquid stools in a single day. It depletes the body of fluids and electrolytes. Diarrhea can be:

    
  • Acute—Occurring suddenly and lasting briefly
  • Chronic—Long-term
  • Recurring—Coming and going
  • If the body loses too much fluid, it can become dehydrated. Dehydration is especially dangerous for babies, young children, and elderly people.

    Causes

    Causes may include:

        
  • Food intolerance, such as lactose intolerance
  • Medication, including:     
  • Antibiotics
  • Magnesium-containing antacids
  • Chemotherapy
  • Laxatives
  • Irritable bowel syndrome, which is episodes of diarrhea often alternate with periods of constipation
  • Injury to the bowel after radiation treatments for cancer
  • Malabsorption syndromes, such asCeliac disease
  • Diseases of the pancreas and/or gallbladder
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
  • Chronic diseases, such as:     
  • Liver disease
  • Diabetes
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • AIDS
  • Colon cancer
  • Intestinal surgery
  • Infections such as:     
  • Bacterial, such as salmonella
  • Viral, such as rotavirus and norovirus
  • Parasitic
  • Fungal, such as yeast
  • Risk Factors

    Risk factors include:

        
  • Traveling to a developing country where the water and food supply may be contaminated
  • Taking certain medications
  • Hospitalization
  • Having a severely weakened immune system, such as with AIDS or after an organ transplant
  • Symptoms

    Symptoms may include:

        
  • Frequent, loose, liquid stools
  • Abdominal pain, cramping
  • Urgent need to defecate
  • Blood and/or mucus in stool
  • Fever
  • Dehydration
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Muscle aches and pains
  • Weight loss
  • When Should I Call My Doctor?

    Call your doctor if you:

        
  • Have diarrhea that lasts longer than three days
  • Are not able to eat or drink to stay hydrated
  • Have a fever
  • Call your doctor if your young child:

        
  • Has diarrhea lasting longer than a day
  • Has pus in stool
  • Is dehydrated—no wet diapers in three hours, dry mouth, crying without tears, skin that stays up after being pinched
  • Is sleepy or irritable
  • Has a fever
  • When Should I Call for Medical Help Immediately?

    Call for medical help or go to the emergency room right away if you or your child has:

        
  • Severe abdominal pain and cramping
  • Bloody or black stool
  • Diagnosis

    You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may insert a gloved finger into your rectum to examine it. This is called a digital rectal exam.

    To determine the cause of your diarrhea, the doctor will ask questions, such as:

        
  • Does anyone else in your family have diarrhea?
  • What kinds of food have you eaten recently?
  • Do you drink well water?
  • Do your children attend daycare?
  • Have you traveled recently?
  • Do you use laxatives?
  • What medications do you take?
  • Do you have any symptoms other than diarrhea, such as fever, rash, or aching joints?
  • What is your sexual history?
  • Have you ever had abdominal surgery?
  • Tests may include:

        
  • Your bodily fluids, tissues, and waste products may be tested. This can be done with:     
  • Laboratory analysis of a stool sample
  • Blood tests
  • Biopsy
  • You may need to have your rectum and colon examined. This can be done with:     
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • You may need to have images taken of your colon. This can be done with:     
  • Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series
  • Barium enema
  • Barium Enema

    Radiology colon

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  • Treatment

    Treating the underlying condition may help to relieve the diarrhea.

    General recommendations for treating diarrhea include:

    Drink Plenty of Fluids

    Plain water will not replace the electrolytes lost through diarrhea. For adults and children, look for age-specific oral rehydration solutions. Avoid fruit juices, soda, and drinks containing caffeine. For young children, continue with breastfeeding or formula feeding as advised by your child's doctor.

    Ask Your Doctor What You Should Eat

    Doctors differ in their approach to treating diarrhea. For example, your doctor may recommend that you:

        
  • Drink only clear fluids during severe phases of diarrhea.
  • Avoid certain foods, such as: spicy foods, fatty foods, greasy foods, high-fiber foods, dairy products in large amounts, and caffeinated drinks.
  • Eat certain foods, such as: complex carbohydrates like pasta and rice, yogurt, fruits and vegetables, and lean meats
  • Ask your doctor which dietary guidelines you should follow. As your diarrhea subsides, your usual healthy foods can be reintroduced.

    Medications

    Your doctor may advise:

        
  • Antidiarrheal medication
  • Antibiotics—May be needed if a bacterial infection is causing diarrhea
  • Probiotics, such as Lactobacillus casei, may be beneficial in some cases
  • Children should not be given medication unless specifically advised by the doctor.

    Hospitalization

    Diarrhea can cause severe dehydration. You may need to be hospitalized. Fluids will be delivered through an IV.

    Prevention

    To reduce your chance of getting diarrhea:

        
  • Practice good handwashing.
  • Practice safe food preparation and food storage.
  • If you have diarrhea, do not prepare food for others.
  • If you are traveling:     
  • Drink bottled water.
  • Use bottled water when brushing your teeth.
  • Avoid drinks that contain ice.
  • Do not eat food purchased from street vendors.
  • Do not eat raw vegetables or fruits. All produce should be peeled and/or cooked.
  • Make sure meats and seafood are cooked thoroughly.
  • Eat only pasteurized dairy products.
  • If you eat seafood, make sure it is very hot.
  • Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children under five years of age. There is a vaccine to prevent rotavirus. The first dose is given at age two months. Make sure your infant has received this vaccine.