Gout occurs when uric acid crystals build up in the joints. This causes the joints to be inflamed, causing pain.
Gout typically occurs if you have high levels of
in your blood. A high level of uric acid in the blood is called hyperuricemia. However, you could also have normal uric levels and still have gout.
The uric acid can then form crystals in the joints causing the pain and inflammation.
The liver metabolizes uric acid, and the kidneys get rid of it through the urine. Levels of uric acid build up when: Too much uric acid is producedNot enough uric acid is eliminated
If you have gout and hyperuricemia, your body doesn't eliminate enough uric acid.
Gout is more common in men over the age of 30 years, but gout can occur in men and women at any age. Other factors that may increase your risk of gout include: Obesity, sudden weight gain, or rapid weight loss
Family members with history of goutKidney diseaseDiabetes mellitusHigh blood pressure
Certain types of
Certain medications, such as:
Low-dose aspirinDiureticsCyclosporin, an antirejection drugChemotherapy
drugs used to treat cancer
Certain foods and beverages may also increase your chances of gout. Foods high in purines, such as organ meats, shellfish, some vegetables, and graviesHigh-fructose drinks, such as sugar-sweetened sodas and orange juice
alcohol, especially beer
Symptoms may include: Sudden onset of severe pain in an inflamed joint, usually starting in the big toeJoints that are red, hot, swollen, and tenderIncreased pain 24-48
hours after the onset of symptoms
Gout of the Big Toe
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Most people with gout have another attack. This attack may affect many different joints. With recurrent gout, tophi can form. Tophi are chalky deposits of uric acid that most commonly occur in the elbows and earlobes, but may form anywhere
Gout can also lead to other health problems, such as: Kidney stonesKidney diseaseJoint destruction
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A sample of fluid from the affected joint will be taken. This fluid will be tested for uric acid crystals.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with: A sample of fluid taken from the affected jointBlood testsUrine tests
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with: X-rayMRI scanUltrasound
Treatment depends on whether the gout is acute or recurrent.
In general, the sooner treatment begins for an acute attack, the more effective it is. Treatment
depends on: The number of joints affectedPrevious responses to treatmentOverall health
an ice pack on the joint may ease the pain. Keeping the weight of clothes or bed covers off the joint can also help.
Medications may include: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)Corticosteroids—may be given orally or as an injection into the affected jointColchicine
General measures used to treat recurrent gout include: A low purine dietAlcohol avoidanceGradual weight loss in those who are obeseStopping or changing medications that may be causing recurrent goutIncreasing fluid intake
If you have recurrent gout, or you have kidney stones, tophi, or reduced kidney function, you may be given medications to: Lower the production of uric acidIncrease the excretion of uric acid by the kidneysConvert uric acid into a different byproduct
To help reduce your chance of getting gout: Eat a low-purine diet.Limit how much alcohol you drink. Avoid binge drinking.Drink a lot of fluids.Lose weight gradually.
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Last reviewed June 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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