Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disorder that affects the brain. HD causes slow, progressive degeneration of nerve cells in certain areas of the brain. Eventually, HD results in: Abnormal body movements
Gradual deterioration or loss of intellectual abilitiesBehavior problems
A faulty gene on chromosome #4 causes HD. All people who inherit the faulty gene may eventually develop HD.
Having family members with HD increases your chance of developing HD. Each person whose parent has HD has a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder.
Symptoms most often develop between the ages of 30-50 years. Symptoms are mild at first and are often barely noticeable, but usually worsen over 15-20 years.
Abnormal body movements that worsen over time, may include:
Sudden jerks or uncontrolled movements of the limbs or trunkFacial grimacingContinuous need to turn head and shift gazeWalking that is unsteady or dance-like
Gradual deterioration or loss of intellectual abilities may include: Difficulty with eating and swallowing, which may result in weight loss Difficulty dressing, sitting, and caring for oneselfGrunting or poor articulation of speech
Loss of intellectual and behavior problems may include: Trouble with attention and awarenessConfusion or disorientationLoss of memoryLoss of judgmentLoss of ability to think rationallyIrritability and moodinessDepression
AnxietySocial withdrawal or antisocial behaviorIrresponsible behaviorObsessive-compulsive
Personality changesPsychosis—a severe emotional and behavioral disorder that often interferes with a person's ability to relate to others and to function in daily lifeParanoia—a mental disorder that involves feelings of being watched, followed, or harmed by othersHallucinations—the perception of a thing or person that is not present
Ultimately, HD can: Cause the loss of the physical and mental ability to care for oneselfCause severe disability, making full-time or nursing home care necessary
Result in death, often due to a fall or
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history (including family medical history). A physical exam will be done. Blood tests can rule out other conditions. You may need to have imaging tests, which take pictures of internal body structures. Imaging tests include: CT scanMRIPET scan
CT Scan of the Head
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There is a test that can determine if a person has inherited the gene for HD. This test may help to make the diagnosis of HD. It may also help to determine if a person has inherited the HD gene before symptoms appear. Genetic counseling is recommended before taking this test to review risks and benefits.
There is no cure for HD. Treatment aims to help control symptoms.
Drugs can help control abnormal movements and emotional symptoms of HD. These include:
Staying physically active helps people with HD to function better and longer. Often physical and occupational therapy may be of some benefit.
There is no way to prevent the onset of HD if a person has inherited the gene for the disorder. If you have a family history of HD, talk with a genetic counselor.
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Paulsen JS, Hoth KF, et al. Critical periods of suicide risk in Huntington's disease.
Am J Psychiatry. 2005;163(4):725-731.
Last reviewed July 2013 by Rimas Lukas, MD; Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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