is a chronic, severe, disabling brain disorder. It interferes with the way a person interprets reality. People with schizophrenia may:
Hear voices or see things that others do notBecome paranoid that people are plotting against themExperience cognitive deficitsWithdraw socially
These and other symptoms make it difficult for people with schizophrenia to have positive relationships with others.
Regions of the Brain
Schizophrenia affects many different areas of the brain causing a wide range of behavioral, emotional, and intellectual symptoms.
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The cause of schizophrenia is unknown but it is associated with problems in brain structure and chemistry. There may be some genetic role.
Schizophrenia does not develop because of one factor. You may have a gene that increases your chance of schizophrenia, but you may not develop the disease based on your environment. Environment means any outside factor like stress or infection.
Factors that may increase your chance of schizophrenia include: Having a parent or sibling with schizophreniaMarijuana use or other drug useFather being of older ageOther factors, like problems during pregnancy or birth
Men typically develop symptoms in their late teens or early twenties. Schizophrenia in women tends to occur in their twenties or thirties. In rare cases, it is seen in childhood.
Symptoms often appear slowly. Early signs may include difficulty with relationships, school or work. The symptoms may become more disturbing and bizarre over time or occur in a matter of weeks or months.
Positive symptoms are behaviors that are not generally seen in healthy people. They may lose touch with reality with: Hallucinations—seeing or hearing things/voices that are not thereDelusions—strong but false personal beliefs that are not based in realityThought disordersMovement disorders
Negative symptoms are associated with breaks in normal emotions and behaviors, such as: Emotional flatness—flat speech, lack of facial expression, and general disinterest and withdrawalReduced feelings of pleasureDifficulty starting and continuing activitiesReduced speaking
Cognitive symptoms are changes in memory and thinking, such as: Poor ability to understand information and make decisions based on itDifficulty focusingDifficulty using information immediately after learning it
You, or a loved one or caregiver, will be asked about your symptoms and medical and mental health history. A physical exam will be done. A psychological exam may also be done.
It will take some time to confirm a schizophrenia diagnosis. Tests may be done to rule out other conditions or lifestyle habits such as drug use that can cause similar symptoms. Schizophrenia is diagnosed when 2 or more of the following symptoms occur and reduce ability of day to day life: DelusionsHallucinationsDisorganized speechDisorganized or catatonic behaviorSymptoms that disrupt normal emotions and behaviors—also known as negative symptoms
Schizophrenia is not curable, but symptoms can be reduced through treatment. Early, aggressive treatment can lead to better outcomes and may delay progression of schizophrenia to psychosis.
Hospitalization may be required during acute episodes. Symptoms are usually controlled with antipsychotic medications. Talk to your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options may include one or more of the following:
Antipsychotics work by blocking certain chemicals in the brain. This helps control the abnormal thinking that occurs in people with schizophrenia. Determining a drug plan can be a complicated process. Often medications or dosages need to be changed until the right balance is found. This can take months or even years. The right balance of medication will have the least amount of side effects possible with the greatest benefit.
It is important to continue taking the medication even if you are feeling better. Symptoms will return once the medication has been stopped. A long-acting injection instead of daily pills may be used if you have difficulty taking regular medication.
Antipsychotics also have side effects that may make it difficult to stick to a medication routine. Common side effects include: Slow and stiff movementsRestlessnessFacial ticsProtruding tongue
atypical antipsychotics have fewer side effects and are better tolerated over long periods of time. However, these medications may cause significant weight gain, high blood sugar, and
can often occur with schizophrenia. They may be treated with:
AntidepressantsAnti-anxiety medicationsMood stabilizersAnticonvulsants
Schizophrenia is a lifelong condition. It can be confusing and frightening for the person with the disease and for family members. Individual and family therapy can address: Social skillsVocational guidanceCommunity resourcesFamily issuesLiving arrangementsEmotional support
There are no current guidelines to prevent schizophrenia because the cause is unknown.
Schizophrenia. American Psychiatric Association website. Available at:
http://www.psychiatry.org/schizophrenia. Accessed February 22, 2016.
Schizophrenia. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at:
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/index.shtml. Updated April 2, 2013. Accessed February 22, 2016.
4/29/2016 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Stafford MR, Jackson H, Mayo-Wilson E, Morrison AP, Kendall T. Early interventions to prevent psychosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013;346:f185.
Last reviewed February 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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