Tension headache refers to head pain associated with stress and muscle contraction. These headaches may occur only occasionally in response to a stressful event. They may also be chronic, occurring frequently. Some tension headaches are nearly constant, with daily pain that may vary in intensity.
Tension Headache: Areas of Pain
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Tension headaches may occur when muscles in the neck, face, and scalp contract, which produce pain. The precise cause of this muscle contraction is unknown. Factors that may contribute to tension headache include:
of the neck area
Temporomandibular joint disease (TMJ)Chemical imbalances in the brain
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.
Your risk of getting a tension headache increases with:
DepressionAnxietySex: femaleTeeth clenching or grindingSleep apneaMedicationsSleep disruptionLow physical activity
Tension headache symptoms usually start slowly and build.
Constant, steady pain and pressureDull and achy painPain felt on both sides of the head, in the forehead, temples, and the back of the headPressure may feel like a tight band around the headIntensity ranges from mild to severe and can vary during the dayTightness in head and neck muscles
Headaches can become so severe and constant that they interfere with normal activities and sleep.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. The cause of a headache can be difficult to determine.
Tests may include:
Neurological examBlood tests
x-ray—a test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body, especially bones
CT scan—a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the head
MRI scan—a type of machine that uses a magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer to make pictures of structures inside the head
Tension headaches are
managed, rather than cured. Therapies aim to stop the headache and reduce the frequency of future episodes.
Treatment may include:
Medications may include:
Over-the-counter pain pills—Continuous use of some over-the-counter medication may create rebound pain when you stop taking the drug. Using these medicines too much can cause headaches. Pain medications are most effective when taken at the first sign of pain and before it becomes severe.Prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)or muscle relaxantsDrugs to prevent headaches, if you suffer from daily tension headachesAntidepressant medications, even if you are not clinically depressedBotulinum toxin injections
Self-care may include:
RestPut an ice pack or heat pack on your head or neck to ease discomfortTake a warm shower, with water running over tense musclesMassage
your temples and neckPractice relaxation techniques
Lifestyle changes may include:
regularlyImprove your postureGet plenty of sleepTake breaks from tasks
Learn and practice
and relaxation techniques
Consider seeing a
Develop new coping skillsIdentify events that trigger the headaches and work toward resolution
Additional therapies may include:
Acupuncture—Acupuncture may help you to have more headache-free days and lessen the intensity of headaches when they do occur.
Physical therapy—Physical therapists can help you develop a home-exercise program.Massage therapy if the pain is in your neck and shoulders
If you are diagnosed with a tension headache, follow your doctor's
You may be able to reduce the chance of a tension headache by learning how to manage stress. Try the following strategies:
Keep a diary, marking when headaches occur and what you were doing before they started.Learn to recognize what provokes a tension headache.Avoid or minimize stressful situations.Take frequent breaks to walk or move around.Make time for pleasurable activities.Practice relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing and focusing on something pleasant.Learn techniques for coping with difficult or stressful situations.Make time for friends and build a strong support system.Go to bed early and get a good night's sleep.Exercise regularly.Do not slouch.Hold the phone, rather than cradling it on your shoulder, or use a headset.
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Last reviewed September 2011 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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