Many people, especially women of childbearing age, infants, and pregnant women, may not take in as much iron as they need. However, there are many good food sources of iron to choose from. If your doctor advises you to increase your iron intake, consult the chart below to determine how much you need, and read on for some suggestions to meet those needs.
Your blood depends on iron to help it carry oxygen through the body. In some cases,
is caused by a lack of iron in the diet. Iron also helps your body to fight infection and to make collagen, which is the major protein that makes up connective tissue, cartilage, and bone. Other medical conditions may be worsened if you do not have enough iron.
|Age Group||RDA (mg/day)|
AI = 0.27
AI = 0.27
|Lactation, < 18 years||n/a||10|
|Lactation, 19-50 years||n/a||9|
Note: RDA=Recommended Daily Allowance in milligrams per day; AI=Adequate Intake
Iron exists in two forms—heme and nonheme. Heme iron is part of the hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules in animal tissues. It is found in meat and other animal sources. About 40% of the iron in meat is in the heme form. Nonheme iron comes from animal tissues other than hemoglobin and myoglobin and from plant tissues. It is found in meats, eggs, milk, vegetables, grains, and other plant foods. The body absorbs heme iron much more efficiently than nonheme iron.
Food Sources of Mostly Heme Iron (Contain Some Nonheme As Well)
|Liver, giblets, cooked||3 ounces||10.2|
|Oysters, cooked||3 ounces||8|
|Beef, chuck, lean only, braised||3 ounces||3.1|
|Beef, top sirloin, lean only, broiled||3 ounces||12|
|Beef liver||3 ounces||5.2|
|Turkey, dark meat, roasted||3 ounces||2.0|
|Beef, ground, 85% lean||3 ounces||2.2|
|Turkey, light meat, roasted||3 ounces||1.1|
|Chicken, dark meat only, roasted||3 ounces||1.1|
|Tuna, fresh yellowfin, cooked, dry heat||3 ounces||1.1|
|Chicken, breast, roasted||3 ounces||0.8|
|Halibut, cooked, dry heat||3 ounces||0.2|
|Crab, Alaskan king, cooked, moist heat||3 ounces||0.8|
|Pork, loin, broiled||3 ounces||0.7|
|Tuna, white, canned in water||3 ounces||1.3|
|Shrimp, mixed species, cooked, moist heat||4 large||0.3|
Food Sources of Nonheme Iron
|Breakfast cereal, 100% iron fortified||¾ cup||18|
|Breakfast cereal, 25% iron fortified||¾ cup||4.5|
|Soybean nuts, boiled||1 cup||8.8|
|Spinach, canned||½ cup||3.2|
|Spinach, fresh, boiled||1/2 cup||3.2|
|Red kidney beans, boiled||1 cup||5.2|
|Lima beans, cooked||1 cup||4.5|
|Blackeye peas, boiled||1 cup||4.3|
|Navy beans, boiled||1 cup||4.3|
|Black beans, boiled||1 cup||3.6|
|Raisins, seedless||½ cup||1.6|
|Pinto beans, boiled||1 cup||3.6|
|Whole-wheat bread||1 slice||0.7|
|Tofu, raw, firm||½ cup||3.4|
|White bread, made with enriched flour||1 slice||0.7|
|Spinach, frozen, boiled||½ cup||1.9|
|Grits, white, enriched||1 cup||1.5|
|Lentils, boiled||1 cup||6.6|
The amount of iron your body absorbs varies depending on several factors. For example, your body will absorb more iron from foods when your iron stores are low and will absorb less when stores are sufficient.
In addition, certain dietary factors affect absorption: Heme iron is absorbed more efficiently than nonheme iron.Heme iron enhances the absorption of nonheme iron.Vitamin C
enhances the absorption of nonheme iron when eaten at the same meal.
Some substances decrease the absorption of nonheme iron. (Consuming heme iron and/or
with nonheme can help compensate for these decreases.)
Oxalic acid, found in spinach and chocolate—However, oxalic acid is broken down with cooking.Phytic acid, found in wheat bran and beans (legumes)Tannins, found in teaPolyphenols, found in coffeeCalcium carbonate supplements
To increase your intake and absorption of dietary iron, try the following: Combine heme and nonheme sources of iron.
Eat foods rich in vitamin C with nonheme iron sources. Good sources of vitamin C include:
Bell peppersPapayasOranges and orange juiceBroccoliStrawberriesGrapefruitCantaloupeTomatoes and tomato juicePotatoesCabbageSpinach and collard greensIf you drink coffee or tea, do so between meals rather than with a meal.Cook acidic foods in cast iron pots. This can increase iron content up to 30 times.
The American Dietetic Association's Complete Food & Nutrition Guide. Chronimed Publishing; 1998.
Bowes & Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used. 17th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998.
Iron. Office of Dietary Supplements website. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-HealthProfessional. Updated April 8, 2014. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Iron deficiency anemia in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 9, 2014. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Iron and iron deficiency. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/iron.html#Iron Sources. Updated February 23, 2011. Accessed July 2, 2014.
Perspectives in Nutrition. 2nd ed. Mosby-Year Book, Inc.; 1993
Last reviewed July 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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