The mitral valve is on the left side of the heart. It allows blood to flow from the left upper chamber into the left lower chamber. When the valve is not working well, it may need to be replaced.
Healthy heart valves allow blood to flow one way. Diseased valves either leak and cause back flow or narrow and restrict flow. The condition can be life threatening. Sometimes the valve can be repaired. Other times, it must be replaced.
Rheumatic fever, infections, defects at birth, and wear and tear are the most common causes of mitral valve problems.
If you are planning to have a mitral valve replacement, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include: BleedingInfectionDamage to the heart or other organsReaction to anesthesia
The demands of open-heart surgery are severe. The better your general health, the less likely you will experience a complication.
Some of the risk factors that must be evaluated before you undergo this procedure include: Smoking, which can increase your risk of complications
Heart diseaseBlood clotting disordersCancer
Your doctor will evaluate both your general health and the condition of your heart and circulation. Expect several heart tests, including an
Some patients may also have cardiac catheterization.
Leading up to your procedure:
Talk to your doctor about your medicines, herbs, or supplements. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines up to one week before the procedure, such as:
or other anti-inflammatory drugs
Blood-thinning medicinesDo not eat or drink anything the night before your procedure.
An incision will be made along the length of your breast bone. The breast bone will be split lengthwise to expose your heart. You will then be put on a heart-lung machine. This machine takes over the work of your heart so that the doctor can stop your heart.
Your heart will be opened. A substitute valve will be sewn into place. This valve may be mechanical (metal and plastic), such as a St. Jude valve, or it may be made of tissue. Tissue valves most often come from a pig or a cow. Tissue valves may also be supplied by a human donor or even manufactured from your own tissues. When the valve is in place, you will be taken off the heart-lung machine and your heart will be re-started. The incision will be closed.
Mitral Valve Replacement
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Newer techniques, including
are being developed. These procedures will be able to do the same surgery with smaller incisions.
You will be taken to a recovery room. You will be monitored for any negative reactions.
Anesthesia will block pain during the surgery. Your chest and back will be sore following the surgery. Talk to your doctor about medicine to help manage pain.
The usual length of stay is 8-10 days. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications arise.
You will probably spend 1-3 days in the intensive care unit (ICU) and several more days in a regular hospital room. During this time, your care team will: Observe you for any complicationsStabilize your heart functionInstruct you in home care and activities
Be sure to follow your doctor's
instructions, which may include: If you have a mechanical valve, you will need to take blood thinners for life. This will help to prevent blood clots. If you have a tissue valve, you will need to take blood-thinning medicine for six weeks to three months after surgery.You may also need to take antibiotics during dental procedures and during certain other procedures. This will help prevent a valve infection.Ask your doctor about when it is safe to shower, bathe, or soak in water.You will slowly return to your usual activities over a 4-12 week period. You may also be asked to participate in a cardiac rehabilitation program.
Mechanical valves can last a lifetime. Tissue valves last 7-14 years and then must be replaced. If your valve is repaired and you have no complications, you will likely do well and be able to return to normal activities.
After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or any discharge from the incision siteConstipation,
diarrhea, bloody or tarry-color bowel movements, or stomach pain
Weight gain—greater than two pounds in two daysWorsening of ankle swellingSevere headacheNausea and/or vomitingCough, shortness of breath, or chest painCoughing up bloodSkin rash, or unusual bruising or bleedingConfusionLightheadedness when standingTingling in hands and feetIrregular heartbeat, extremely slow pulse, or fast pulseRedness, swelling, or pain in one or both legsBurning during urination
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am J Med.
Last reviewed May 2013 by Ganson Purcell Jr., MD, FACOG, FACPE
Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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