Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common glioma—a type of brain cancer. This cancer starts in the glial cells, which are cells that help nerve cells work.
This condition can develop suddenly. It can also develop from a lower grade, less cancerous brain tumor. Most cases are located in the cerebral hemisphere of the brain. The cancer can also begin in the spinal cord or brain stem.
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GBM originates from astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell. The factors that cause normal-functioning astrocytes to become cancerous is not well understood.
Factors that increase your chances of developing GBM include: Age: over 50 years oldEthnicity: Caucasians, Hispanics, AsiansHaving a low-grade brain tumor, which occasionally develops into a higher-grade tumor
Having one of the following genetic disorders:
NeurofibromatosisTuberous sclerosisVon Hippel-Lindau diseaseLi-Fraumeni syndromeTurcot's syndrome
radiotherapyWorking in the synthetic rubber or petroleum refining industriesExposure to vinyl chloride or pesticidesHaving had computed tomography (CT) scans during childhood
Symptoms include: New onset headaches—more than 30% of patientsNew onset seizures—20% to 30% patientsProgressive cognitive dysfunction—depends on the location of the tumor; problems with vision, language, motor function, or sensation may occurProgressive neurological deficits, including weaknessPersonality changesBehavioral changes, development of inappropriate behaviorsMemory loss
Surgery is often done to confirm diagnosis and relieve headache, but doctors cannot completely remove the cancer. Other types of treatment may include: Radiation
treatment is used to further decrease the size of the tumor.
is used to increase survival time and quality of life.
Steroids to suppress swelling, antiseizure medication to suppress seizures, and pain medications are also used.
Even with aggressive treatment, few patients survive more than five years after diagnosis. However, there is evidence that medical and surgical intervention can increase life expectancy and improve quality of life.
A multi-disciplinary approach is important for you and your family. This approach may involve: Support groupPsychotherapy and psychiatryPain managementHospice care
As the causes of GBM are unknown, there are no preventive measures.
Adult brain tumors treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute website. Available at:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/adultbrain/healthprofessional. Updated May 14, 2013. Accessed June 11, 2013.
Brain tumors. The Merck Manual of Medical Information: Second Home Edition Online website. Available at:
http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec06/ch088/ch088b.html. Updated February 2008. Accessed June 11, 2013.
EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 3, 2013. Accessed June 11, 2013.
Last reviewed May 2014 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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