Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backward flow of urine. The urine flows from the bladder back into the kidney.
Urine normally flows from the kidneys. It passes through tubes called ureters. It then flows into the bladder. Each ureter connects to the bladder in a way that prevents urine from flowing back up the ureter. The connection is similar to a one-way valve. When this does not work properly, or if the ureters do not extend far enough into the bladder, urine may flow back up to the kidney. If the urine contains bacteria, the kidney may become infected. The back up can also put extra pressure on the kidney. This can cause kidney damage.
Anatomy of the Urinary System
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
A problem in the way the ureter inserts into the bladderA ureter that does not extend far enough into the bladderA bladder outlet obstruction, such as a blockage of urine flow from an enlarged prostate gland
neurogenic bladder—loss of normal bladder function due to damaged nerves reaching the bladder
Temporary swelling after
This condition may be caused by:
Factors that increase your chance of developing VUR include: Family historyCongenital abnormalities of the urinary tract
Birth defects that affect the spinal cord, such as
spina bifidaTumors in the spinal cord or pelvisSpinal cord injury
In most cases, VUR has no obvious symptoms or signs. In some cases, VUR is found after a
is diagnosed. Symptoms of urinary tract infections include:
Frequent and urgent need to urinatePassing small amounts of urinePain in the abdomen or pelvic areaBurning sensation during urinationCloudy, bad-smelling urineIncreased need to get up at night to urinateBlood in the urineLeaking urineLow back pain or pain along the side of the ribsFever and chills
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with: Blood testsUrine testsUltrasound
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with: CT scanVoiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)Intravenous pyelogramNuclear scans
The goal for treatment of VUR is to prevent any permanent kidney damage. Treatment options include the following:
This procedure is a minimally invasive surgery. It is done to correct the reflux. A gel is injected where the ureter inserts into the bladder. This can prevent urine from going back up the ureter. This procedure is done through a small tube called a
This surgery repositions the ureters in the bladder. It can be done in two ways. One way requires making an incision above the pubic bone and repositioning the ureters in the bladder. It can also be done laparoscopically by inserting cameras through small incisions in the abdomen and/or bladder to perform the surgery.
VUR cannot be prevented in most cases. However, further complications can be avoided. Seek prompt treatment for bladder or kidney infections. This is particularly important if you have a neurogenic bladder.
Valla JS, Steyaert H, et al. Transvesicoscopic Cohen ureteric reimplantation for vesicoureteral reflux in children: a single-centre 5-year experience.
J Pediatr Urol. 2009;5(6):466-471.
Vesicoureteral reflux. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 15, 2013. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Vesicoureteral reflux. National Kidney and Urological Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at:
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vesicoureteralreflux/. Updated June 29, 2012. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Last reviewed May 2014 by Adrienne Carmack, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.