Folliculitis is an inflammation of the hair follicle. It can occur anywhere on your skin or scalp. There are many types of folliculitis.
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Folliculitis has many causes. It may be infectious or noninfectious.
Infectious folliculitis is caused by: BacteriaFungiVirusesParasites
Non-infectious folliculitis may be caused by: ShavingIrritation from clothingCertain medicationsChemical exposureSun exposureMissing nutrients in your diet
Contact dermatitis (poison ivy), acne, or rosacea may also cause folliculitis.
Factors that may increase your chances of folliculitis include: A suppressed immune systemExposure to bacterial infectionHaving other skin conditions, especially those that cause a lot of itchingShaving against the direction of hair growthUse of contaminated hot tubs, poorly maintained swimming pools, or contaminated lakes Exposure to oils and chemicalsOveruse of topical medications
Symptoms may include: Itchy, red rashAppearance of crusty sores that don’t healPus-filled blisters around the hair follicle
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Diagnosis may be made by looking at your skin. Testing will help your doctor determine the type and cause of the folliculitis. Other tests may be done to rule out specific skin or health conditions.
Tests may include: Culture—a swab of an open area to look for infections Smear—a sample an open area is smeared onto a glass slide to be looked at under a microscope Analysis of affected hairBiopsy of affected skinBlood tests
In most cases, folliculitis is treated with medication. The type of medication depends on the cause of the folliculitis. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment option for you.
Infectious folliculitis may be treated with: Bacterial infections are treated with topical or oral antibioticsFungal infections are treated with topical or oral antifungal medicationsViral infections are treated with oral antiviral medicationsParasitic infections are treated with topical or oral antiparasitic medications
Non-infectious folliculitis may be treated with: Topical corticosteroidsNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
To help reduce your chance of getting folliculitis, take these steps: Be aware of, and avoid exposure to chemicals, especially at work Avoid shaving against direction of hair growthUse proper hygiene and handwashing techniquesClean and maintain pools and hot tubs on a regular basis
Luelmo-Aguilar J, Satandreu MS. Folliculitis: recognition and management. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2004;5(5):301-310.
Last reviewed August 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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