Omphalocele is a birth defect that creates a gap in the muscles and skin where the belly button should be. Abdominal tissue and organs, like the intestines, push through the gap to the outside of the body. The misplaced abdominal tissue and organs are enclosed in a sac.
The omphalocele may be small with just a section of intestines or can be large and involve several abdominal organs. It is often associated with other birth defects.
Normal Anatomy of the Abdominal Organs
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Omphalocele develops before birth. During normal development, the baby’s intestines normally push out into the umbilical cord for a short time. In most babies, the intestines will move back into the abdomen as the baby grows. An omphalocele develops when the intestines do not move back into abdomen. The intestines keep the abdomen from closing properly.
Factors that may increase the risk of this birth defect include maternal use of: TobaccoAlcoholSelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) before and through first trimester of pregnancy—medications most often used for the treatment of depression or anxietyAsthma medications—before and through first trimester of pregnancy
Being overweight or obese before pregancy also increases risk.
An omphalocele has a visible defect around the belly button.
Omphalocele may be suspected after a standard prenatal screening test. A fetal ultrasound will allow the doctor to see an omphalocele before birth. After birth, an omphalocele can be diagnosed by its appearance.
Additional imaging tests may be done to help plan treatment.
Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your baby. Treatment may include one or more of the following:
Organs can sometimes be damaged because of the omphalocele to the intestines. There may also be some difficulty with digestion. Your baby may need supportive care. Medications may include: Dextrose and electrolyte solutions for nutrition and hydrationAntibiotics if an infection is present or possible
The goal of surgery is to put dislocated tissue back in place and close damaged wall. The type of surgery will depend on the extent of the omphalocele.
Large defects may require several surgeries over a longer period of time.
Treatment may also be needed to treat potential complications such as: InfectionShort bowel syndrome—which may cause growth failure because of the intestine’s inability to completely digest or take in nutrientsGastroesophageal reflux—stomach liquids leak up into esophagusBowel obstruction—especially in babies with a rotated intestine
To help reduce the chance of your baby having an omphalocele: Quit smoking before and during pregnancy.Avoid alcohol during pregnancy.
If you are pregnant, talk to your doctor about replacing or stopping selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or asthma medication.
Facts about omphalocele. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/Omphalocele.html. Updated November 17, 2015. Accessed June 6, 2016.
Omphalocele. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 3, 2012. Accessed June 6, 2016.
Omphalocele. PEMSoft at EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Accessed June 6, 2016.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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