Lysosomal storage disease is a group of disorders that affect specific enzymes. These enzymes normally break down items for reuse in the cells. If the enzymes are missing or don't work properly the items can build up and become toxic. This occurs in an area of the cell called lysosomes. The build up eventually leads to damage of cells and organs in the body.
There are over 40 different types of lysosomal diseases. The diseases are characterized by the specific enzymes involved: Fabry Morquio’s disease—affects the kidney, heart, and skinGaucher disease
—affects the spleen and bones, and causes anemia
Hurler’s syndrome—affects the spleen, liver, joints, and eyes; causes intellectual disability and deafnessMaroteaux-Larny disease—affects the skin, bones, liver, and spleenNiemann-Pick disease
—affects the spleen, liver, and lungs
Pompe disease—affects the liver, heart, and muscle tissueTay-Sachs disease
—affects the brain
Lysosomal storage disease is caused by a genetic problem. The genes that plan the production of the enzymes is faulty. Both parent must pass the gene on to the child in order for the disease to develop.
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Lysosomal storage disease is more common in families with Ashkenazi Jewish, Finnish, or Dutch heritage. A family history increases the chance of the disease as well.
Symptoms can be severe and appear shortly after birth or mild and detected later in life. Symptoms will depend on the specific type of disease. Some common symptoms include: Recurrent infections or herniasDevelopmental delaysProblems with hearing or sightProblems including pain with bonesProblems with heart
These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. If your child has any of these symptoms, talk to the doctor right away.
The doctor will ask about your child's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Skin and blood testing may be done to look for the specific enzyme that is causing the problem.
Other tests may include: MRI scan
—for images of the brain
Prenatal testing and newborn screening may help with early detection.
Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms caused by the missing enzymes. Specific treatment depends on the enzyme defect that your child has but options may include: Dialysis
—to remove substances from the blood
Other treatments may include: Substrate Synthesis Inhibition Therapy (SSI)—medication that decreases the item that build up in the cells due to missing enzymes.Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT)—Working enzymes are delivered through an IV to do the job of the defective enzymes.
Stem Cell Transplant—
are transplanted through IV to encourage the body to make the missing enzyme.
There is no way to prevent these kinds of disorders.
Marsden D, Levy H. Newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders.
Wynn RF, Wraith JE, Mercer J, et al. Improved metabolic correction in patients with lysosomal storage disease treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant compared with enzyme replacement therapy.
Last reviewed June 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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