Hematuria means blood in the urine. Normally, urine does not contain any blood. There are 2 kinds of hematuria: Microscopic hematuria—Urine contains a very small amount of blood. It cannot be seen with the naked eye.Gross hematuria—Urine appears red or tea-colored.
The Urinary Tract
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Hematuria can be caused by many conditions, such as: Vigorous exerciseInjury to the abdomen, pelvis, or internal organs of the urinary tract
Conditions that affect the urinary tract, such as infection,
vesicoureteral reflux, blockage or abnormalities, or tumors
Cancer of the
bladderKidney diseaseKidney stones
Bleeding disorders, such as
Certain congenital diseases, such as
polycystic kidneysCertain medications
Sometimes the exact cause is not found.
Factors that may increase your child's chance of hematuria include: Urinary tract infectionRecent upper respiratory tract infectionFamily history of kidney problemsInjury or abuseMedications, such as certain antibiotics or pain relievers
Pelvic radiation therapy
for cancer treatment
In some cases, there may be other symptoms with hematuria. These other symptoms will depend on the underlying condition that is causing the hematuria. For example, if a urinary tract infection is the cause, your child may have to urinate often. There may also be a burning feeling during urination.
Call your child's doctor if you see blood in the urine.
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests to look for infections and signs of kidney trouble may include: Urine tests—tests to confirm the presence of blood and look for protein, bacteria, or cancer cells in the urineBlood tests—tests to check how well the kidneys are functioning and to look for conditions that cause hematuria
Your child's doctor may also need to look at the kidneys and urinary tract. Imaging tests may include: X-rayUltrasoundCT scanMRI scan
Other tests that may be done include: Cystoscopy—to look at the lining of the bladder
Kidney biopsy (done in rare cases)—to remove a small sample of kidney tissue for testing
Treatment will depend on the cause. Some causes do not require treatment. Other causes can be treated with medication. For example, a urinary tract infection is treated with antibiotics.
Surgery may be needed if the urinary tract is blocked.
By treating the underlying condition, the doctor may be able to prevent your child from developing hematuria.
Hematuria. Boston Children's Hospital website. Available at:
http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1000/mainpageS1000P0.html. Accessed March 8, 2012.
Hematuria: Blood in the urine. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at:
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/hematuria. Updated February 2007. Accessed March 8, 2012.
Hematuria in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 17, 2010. Accessed March 8, 2012.
Urination problems. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at:
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/health-tools/search-by-symptom/urination-problems.html. Accessed March 8, 2012.
Last reviewed January 2015 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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