Periodontal disease refers to bacterial plaque and infections around the gum and tooth root. It can happen around one or several teeth. In its more advanced stages, surgery may be needed to fix damaged gums.
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This surgery is needed when: Deep infected pockets have formed and it is too hard to keep them cleanGums around the teeth are damaged and cannot be fixed with nonsurgical techniques, like deep cleaning and medications
This surgery slows the progression of periodontal disease by reducing deep pockets and bacterial growth. Periodontal disease can cause other health problems if not treated.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your dentist will review potential problems, like: Tooth sensitivityChanges in gum appearanceBleedingReaction to the sedationInfectionGum swellingNausea and vomiting
Before your procedure, talk to your dentist about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications such as: SmokingDrinkingChronic diseases, such as diabetes or obesity
Tell your dentist of any recent changes to your health, medications, allergies, or supplements.Take your prescription medications, unless your dentist says otherwise.Talk to your dentist or pharmacist if you are taking more than one drug. Some drugs can be dangerous when mixed. This includes over-the-counter medications and herb or dietary supplements.You may be asked to take an antibiotic before surgery.Arrange for a ride if you are having sedation.
Sometimes, sedative medications are used to make you more relaxed during surgery. If you are undergoing conscious sedation, you will be asked to not eat for at least 6 hours before surgery. Otherwise, you can follow a normal diet.
A local anesthetic will be used near the gum disease.
Your dentist may recommend conscious sedation. You will be awake, but will have no anxiety during the surgery.
This surgery is usually done in an outpatient setting. You do not need to stay overnight. If you are undergoing sedation, you will have it through an IV. Your heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing will be monitored during and after the surgery.
The periodontist or dentist will numb the affected area using a local anesthetic delivered through a needle. They will make a small cut in the gum line near the tooth root. The gum flap will be pulled back, and he will clean out and scrape the infected area. The gum flap will be repositioned to minimize the deep pocket size that formed. The gum will be stitched back into place. A dressing will be applied.
The time it takes to complete the procedure depends on how bad the damage is and how many gum areas are affected.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
During your stay, the dental staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection, such as: Washing their handsWearing gloves or masksKeeping your incisions covered
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chance of infection, such as: Washing your hands often and reminding your healthcare providers to do the sameReminding your healthcare providers to wear gloves or masksNot allowing others to touch your incision
When you return home: Rest as needed.Take over-the-counter medications as advised for swelling and pain.Apply an ice pack to the side of your cheek for 15-20 minutes at a time. Place a towel between the ice pack and your skin.Eat small amounts of soft or pureed foods.Do not smoke, rinse your mouth, or use a straw.Apply dressings or gauze to the area as directed to absorb blood and saliva.Do not exercise for a few days as directed.Do not drive until your dentist says it is okay to do so.
It is important for you to monitor your recovery. Alert your dentist to any problems right away. If any of the following occur, call your dentist: Signs of infection, including fever and chillsRedness, swelling, increasing pain, a lot of bleeding, or any unusual dischargePain and swelling that is not controlled with medication or home careDressing or stitches have come loose or are uncomfortableLoose tissueContinued swelling after 48 hoursOther new symptoms, allergic reactions, or concernsPersistent nausea and vomiting
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Periodontal (gum) disease: Causes, symptoms, and treatments. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Updated August 2012. Accessed August 25, 2014.
pocket reduction procedures. American Academy of Periodontology website. Available at:
http://www.perio.org/consumer/pocket-reduction-procedures.htm. Accessed August 25, 2014.
Periodontitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 9, 2014. Accessed August 25, 2014.
6/6/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am J Med.
Last reviewed August 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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