Definition

This procedure involves the surgical removal of the lining of the uterus (womb). It may involve using heat, cold temperatures, microwave energy, or other methods.

Reasons for Procedure

Endometrial ablation will likely make menstrual flow lighter. In some cases, it stops menstrual flow completely. The procedure is used to treat menorrhagia (recurrent heavy periods not controlled by medicine).

Talk to your doctor about your plans for having a baby. This procedure decreases your chance of pregnancy.

Possible Complications

Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have endometrial ablation, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:

    
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Complications related to anesthesia
  • Uterine perforation or organ injury
  • Edema (swelling) due to fluid leakage and absorption
  • Thermal (heat) injury to the vagina, vulva, or bowel
  • Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications such as:

        
  • Smoking
  • Drinking
  • Chronic disease such as diabetes or obesity
  • The following may also increase your risk of complications:

        
  • Pregnancy or possible pregnancy—procedure should not be done if there is a chance that you are pregnant
  • History of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)—may trigger a recurrence of PID
  • Inflammation of the cervix
  • What to Expect

    Prior to Procedure

    Prior to the procedure, your doctor will likely:

        
  • Do an endometrial biopsy, ultrasound, or hysteroscopy of your uterus to check for abnormalities and understand the shape and size of your uterus.
  • Ask about:     
  • Your medical history
  • Medicines or herbs and supplements you take
  • Any allergies you have
  • Whether you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant
  • If you have an intrauterine device (IUD)
  • Before the procedure, you may need to:

        
  • Ask your doctor about your options. There are many types of endometrial ablation.
  • Talk to your doctor about your medicines. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines up to one week before the procedure, like:     
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs (such as aspirin)
  • Blood thinners, such as clopidogrel or warfarin
  • Take medicine to thin the lining of the uterus.
  • Arrange for someone to drive you home from the care center. You may also need help at home.
  • Try to quit smoking.
  • The day before the procedure:

        
  • Have a light dinner.
  • The night before, do not eat or drink anything after midnight.
  • Anesthesia

    There are three anesthesia options for ablation:

        
  • General anesthesia—blocks pain and keeps you asleep through the procedure
  • Regional anesthesia—blocks pain in an area of the body but you stay awake through the procedure, given as an injection
  • Local anesthesia—just the area that is being operated on is numbed, given as an injection
  • Your doctor will help you decide which one is right for you.

    Description of the Procedure

    There are many different ways for the doctor to do this procedure. A simple ablation procedure is short. It can often be done in a care center. Other procedures take longer and need to be done in a hospital.

    During the procedure, the doctor will not make any incisions to access the uterus. A tiny probe will be inserted through the vagina and into the uterine cavity through the cervix. Depending on the method, the tip of the probe will expand to deliver:

        
  • Radiofrequency (heat and energy)
  • Cryoablation (freezing temperature)
  • Heated fluid
  • Heated balloon
  • Microwave energy
  • Electrosurgery (uses electrical current and a heated rollerball or spiked ball)—may require general anesthesia
  • These methods will destroy the cells lining the uterine cavity. You will not feel pain. Often, ultrasound is used to help guide the doctor. Suction will be used to remove the tissue that has been destroyed.

    How Long Will It Take?

    This depends on the type of method. It can take 15-45 minutes or longer.

    How Much Will It Hurt?

    You may feel cramping and discomfort. Your doctor will give you pain medicine.

    Average Hospital Stay

    This is usually done on an outpatient basis. You may need to stay there for 1-2 hours. Some methods may require an overnight hospital stay.

    Post-procedure Care

    At the Care Center or Hospital

    While recovering, you may receive the following care:

        
  • Check blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing
  • Check on your fluid status and the electrolytes in your blood
  • During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection such as:

        
  • Washing their hands
  • Wearing gloves or masks
  • Keeping your incisions covered
  • There are also steps you can take to reduce your chances of infection such as:

        
  • Washing your hands often and reminding visitors and healthcare providers to do the same
  • Reminding your healthcare providers to wear gloves or masks
  • Not allowing others to touch your incisions
  • Your doctor will ask you how you feel and make sure you are well enough to go home.

    At Home

    After the procedure, you may:

        
  • Feel cramping for 1-2 days
  • Have a heavy discharge for 2-3 days
  • Have a watery, bloody discharge for a few weeks
  • Need to go to the bathroom a lot for the first day and have some nausea
  • When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:

        
  • Make sure you have a supply of sanitary pads at home.
  • You should be able to return to normal activities within a day or two. Ask your doctor when you can:     
  • Exercise
  • Resume sexual activity
  • Use tampons
  • Shower, bathe, or soak in water
  • Since you still have your sexual organs, you will need to:     
  • Use birth control to prevent pregnancy
  • Have routine Pap tests
  • Have pelvic exams
  • Call Your Doctor

    After you leave the hospital, call your doctor if any of the following occurs:

        
  • Heavy vaginal bleeding
  • Severe abdominal cramping and pelvic pain
  • Severe pain during sex
  • Severe low back pain
  • Pain during bowel movements or urination
  • Signs of infection, including fever and chills
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Cough, chest pain, or shortness of breath
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Pain or tenderness in the calf or leg
  • Menstruation does not get lighter after 2-3 periods
  • In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.